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Methylphenidate is a commonly used medication in the United States. This central nervous system stimulant has a mechanism of action distinct from that of amphetamine. The Food and Drug Administration has approved methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. Treatment with methylphenidate has been advocated in(More)
Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an inducible transcription factor that regulates genes important in immunity and inflammation. The activity of NF-kappaB is highly regulated: transcriptionally active NF-kappaB proteins are sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins, IkappaB. A variety of extracellular signals, including interleukin-1 (IL-1),(More)
BACKGROUND 6-Mercaptopurine and its prodrug azathioprine are effective medications for refractory inflammatory bowel disease. However, use of these drugs has been limited by concerns about their toxicity. Colonic delivery of azathioprine may reduce its systemic bioavailability and limit toxicity. AIM To determine the bioavailability of 6-mercaptopurine(More)
Rat liver contains two class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs): a constitutive isozyme (ALDH1) and a phenobarbital-inducible isozyme (ALDH-PB). Defining characteristics of mammalian class 1 ALDHs include a homotetrameric structure, high expression in liver, sensitivity to the inhibitor disulfiram, and high activity for the oxidation of retinal. It is often(More)
Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are DNA analogs that hybridize to complementary nucleic sequences with high affinity and stability. In our previous work, we showed that a PNA complementary to a 12-base pair (bp) sequence of the coding region of the rat neurotensin receptor (rNTR1) mRNA is effective in significantly blocking a rat's central responses to(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Azathioprine, an effective therapy for Crohn's disease, is limited by a prolonged time to response. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and utility of a loading dose of azathioprine to decrease the time to response in patients with Crohn's disease. METHODS Twelve patients were studied: 6 with 13 fistulae and 6 with(More)
Grapefruit juice, a beverage consumed in large quantities by the general population, is an inhibitor of the intestinal cytochrome P-450 3A4 system, which is responsible for the first-pass metabolism of many medications. Through the inhibition of this enzyme system, grapefruit juice interacts with a variety of medications, leading to elevation of their serum(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations may be useful for optimising treatment with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. METHODS We conducted a study of 170 patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine to determine the relationship between 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations and both(More)
Disulfiram (DSF) has found extensive use in the aversion therapy treatment of recovering alcoholics. Although it is known to irreversibly inhibit hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the specific mechanism of in vivo inhibition of the enzyme by the drug has not yet been determined. In this report, we demonstrate a novel, but simple and rapid method for(More)
Androgens are required for the normal development and function of the prostate gland. Prostate cancer and benign pros-tatic hyperplasia are common in men and develop in an environment of continuous androgen exposure. The utility of andro-gen deprivation as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer was first demonstrated in 1941 (1), and many new classes of(More)