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Our objective was to review the current body of evidence supporting the efficacy of self-management programs in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other chronic neurological conditions. We reviewed published literature using standardized search terms; examined self-management interventions in a variety of chronic neurological disorders, including(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether Ginkgo biloba extract (ginkgo) improves cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS Persons with MS from the Seattle and Portland VA clinics and adjacent communities who scored 1 SD or more below the mean on one of 4 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Test, California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II],(More)
—Iterative decoding is used to achieve backward compatible performance improvement in several existing systems. Con-catenated coding and iterative decoding are first set up using composite mappings, so that various applications in digital communication and recording can be described in a concise and uniform manner. An ambiguity zone detection (AZD) based(More)
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