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Ammonia-oxidizing archaea are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments and now thought to be significant contributors to carbon and nitrogen cycling. The isolation of Candidatus "Nitrosopumilus maritimus" strain SCM1 provided the opportunity for linking its chemolithotrophic physiology with a genomic inventory of the globally distributed archaea.(More)
Sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria are common in a variety of sulfidogenic environments. These autotrophic and mixotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are believed to contribute substantially to the oxidative portion of the global sulfur cycle. In order to better understand the ecology and roles of sulfur-oxidizing epsilonproteobacteria, in particular(More)
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have provided unprecedented access into the diversity of the microbial world. Herein we use the comparative genomic analysis of microbial genomes and environmental metagenomes coupled with structural modelling to explore the diversity of aerobic respiration in Archaea. We focus on the heme-copper oxidoreductase(More)
In the respiratory chains of mitochondria and many aerobic prokaryotes, heme-copper oxidases are the terminal enzymes that couple the reduction of molecular oxygen to proton pumping, contributing to the protonmotive force. The cbb(3) oxidases belong to the superfamily of enzymes that includes all of the heme-copper oxidases. Sequence analysis indicates that(More)
Life on Earth originated and evolved in anoxic environments. Around 2.4 billion-years-ago, ancestors of Cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis, producing substantial amounts of O2 as a byproduct of phototrophic water oxidation. The sudden appearance of O2 would have led to significant oxidative stress due to incompatibilities with core cellular(More)
Oxygenic photosynthesis is the most important bioenergetic event in the history of our planet—it evolved once within the Cyanobacteria, and remained largely unchanged as it was transferred to algae and plants via endosymbiosis. Manganese plays a fundamental role in this history because it lends the critical redox behavior of the water-oxidizing complex of(More)
Cytochrome bd is a respiratory quinol: O₂ oxidoreductase found in many prokaryotes, including a number of pathogens. The main bioenergetic function of the enzyme is the production of a proton motive force by the vectorial charge transfer of protons. The sequences of cytochromes bd are not homologous to those of the other respiratory oxygen reductases, i.e.,(More)
In the respiratory chains of aerobic organisms, oxygen reductase members of the heme-copper superfamily couple the reduction of O2 to proton pumping, generating an electrochemical gradient. There are three distinct families of heme-copper oxygen reductases: A, B, and C types. The A- and B-type oxygen reductases have an active-site tyrosine that forms a(More)
The heme-copper oxygen reductases are redox-driven proton pumps. In the current work, the effects of mutations in a proposed exit pathway for pumped protons are examined in the ba(3)-type oxygen reductase from Thermus thermophilus, leading from the propionates of heme a(3) to the interface between subunits I and II. Recent studies have proposed important(More)
Oxygen reductase members of the heme-copper superfamily are terminal respiratory oxidases in mitochondria and many aerobic bacteria and archaea, coupling the reduction of molecular oxygen to water to the translocation of protons across the plasma membrane. The protons required for catalysis and pumping in the oxygen reductases are derived from the(More)