James Harwood

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"Secondary predation" occurs when one predator feeds on a second predator, which has in turn eaten a target prey. Detection of prey remains within predators using monoclonal antibodies cannot distinguish between primary and secondary predation, potentially leading to quantitative and qualitative food chain errors. We report the first fully replicated(More)
Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)" (2011). Abstract. Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990's. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests,(More)
Transitions in habitats and feeding behaviors were fundamental to the diversification of life on Earth. There is ongoing debate regarding the typical directionality of transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the mechanisms responsible for the preponderance of terrestrial to aquatic transitions. Snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)(More)
Dietary supplementation with pollen enhances survival and Collembola boosts fitness of a web-building spider" (2013). Abstract Uncertainties exist about the value of non-prey food for predators that are commonly food-limited, and the dietary conditions where non-prey foods are beneficial for carnivorous species. Prior studies show that large quantities of(More)
Pramipexole, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist, has been implicated in the development of impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Investigation of single doses of pramipexole in healthy participants in reward-based learning tasks has shown inhibition of the neural processing of reward, presumptively through stimulation of dopamine(More)
When touching and viewing a moving surface our visual and somatosensory systems receive congruent spatiotemporal input. Behavioral studies have shown that motion congruence facilitates interplay between visual and tactile stimuli, but the neural mechanisms underlying this interplay are not well understood. Neural oscillations play a role in motion(More)
Spiders from multiple functional guilds are exposed to Bt-endotoxins in transgenic corn fields via prey and pollen consumption" (2016). Abstract A comprehensive assessment of risk to natural enemies from Bt-endotoxins from bioengineered crops must evaluate potential harm, as well as exposure pathways in non-target arthropod food webs. Despite being abundant(More)
A major goal of gut-content analysis is to quantify predation rates by predators in the field, which could provide insights into the mechanisms behind ecosystem structure and function, as well as quantification of ecosystem services provided. However, percentage-positive results from molecular assays are strongly influenced by factors other than predation(More)
Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous(More)
Introduction Genetically modified organisms have been widely adopted in many parts of the world, prompting debate about the implications that this technology may have for environmental health. Transgenic crops have been genetically engineered to incorporate genes derived from another species that confer nutritional and agronomic benefits, such as resistance(More)