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  • J W Halle
  • 1989
When a learner is taught a new response, the stimuli that influence its display often are unknown. These stimuli alter the probability of occurrence of the response. That is, when they are present, the response occurs; when they are absent, it does not occur. By identifying the stimuli that influence the probability of newly acquired responses,(More)
In Experiment 1, classroom teachers were taught to delay their offers of help in naturally occurring situations, and thereby to provide additional opportunities for language use by six moderately retarded language-delayed children. The teachers introduced this delay technique in a multiple-baseline design across the six children. As delays were used, child(More)
Institutional breakfast-serving procedures were manipulated to assess what effect changes in that aspect of the environment would have on requests for food. During baseline, six severely retarded children were required to pick up their food trays and return to their seats. The first manipulation, delaying the giving of the food tray for 15 seconds, served(More)
We investigated variables that may influence the generalization of a replacement mand in 3 young children with severe language delays. A multiple baseline design consisting of one stimulus class of manding opportunities that we arbitrarily divided into three categories (i.e., food, toys, and events) was used for each child. During baseline probes, all(More)
Students with developmental disabilities often rely on prelinguistic behavior (e.g., reaching, leading) to communicate. When listeners fail to attend to prelinguistic behaviors, students may benefit from responding with an alternative form of communication to repair the breakdown. In the present study, we taught two students with developmental disabilities(More)
We examined the effects of two adult social partners on the requesting repertoire of a young child with autism and severe language delays. We used a multiple-schedule design (Kazdin, 1982) to evaluate the request topography that the participant emitted relative to each social partner's contingent differential reinforcement for specific requesting forms. The(More)
HCI studies assessing nonverbal individuals (especially those who do not communicate through traditional linguistic means: spoken, written, or sign) are a daunting undertaking. Without the use of directed tasks, interviews, questionnaires, or question-answer sessions, researchers must rely fully upon observation of behavior, and the categorization and(More)
Physical fitness of persons who are developmentally disabled has received relatively little attention in the special education literature when compared to intellectual functioning (e.g., learning, memory, and language) and to acquisition of functional skills (e.g., self-care, community, and vocational). Despite an increased interest in recreational(More)
One hallmark difficulty of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) centers on communication and speech. Research into computer visualizations of voice has been shown to influence conversational patterns and allow users to reflect upon their speech. In this paper, we present the Spoken Impact Project (SIP), an effort to examine the effect of audio and(More)
The generality of a peer-mediated exercise program designed to enhance aerobic fitness of 17 children with moderate and severe cognitive disabilities was evaluated. Two systematic replications of the program were conducted. Participants' ages, disability levels, and school settings varied. Target participants were paired with peers without disabilities.(More)