James H. Stephen

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OBJECT Primary spinal cord ependymomas (EPNs) are rare in children, comprising classical WHO Grade II and III tumors and Grade I myxopapillary ependymomas (MEPNs). Despite their benign histology, recurrences and neural-axis dissemination have been reported in up to 33% MEPNs in the pediatric population. Treatment options beyond resection are limited, and(More)
Steganography it is a form of security through obscurity. It is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, except sender and intended recipient can understand the hidden message,. The purpose of steganography is covert communication-to hide the existence of a message from a third party. Compared with study on(More)
BACKGROUND The indications for deep brain stimulation (DBS) are expanding, and the feasibility and efficacy of this surgical procedure in various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders continue to be tested. This review attempts to provide background and rationale for applying this therapeutic option to obesity and addiction. We review neural targets(More)
Fingerprint image enhancement is an essential preprocessing step to extract qualitative minutiae from a fingerprint image. The application of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), one of the well known soft computing techniques for fingerprint image enhancement is proposed in this paper. The fingerprint image enhancement algorithm, which is designed based on(More)
OBJECT Fully endoscopicmicrovascular decompression (E-MVD) of the trigeminal nerve was initially described more than 1 decade ago, but has not yet gained wide acceptance. The authors present the experience of their first 47 consecutive E-MVDs for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). METHODS All surgeries were performed by a single surgeon (J.Y.K.L.) at the(More)
Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1.(More)
OBJECTIVE Tarlov cysts (TCs) occur most commonly on extradural components of the sacral and coccygeal nerve roots. These lesions are often found incidentally, with an estimated prevalence of 4%-9%. Given the low estimated rates of symptomatic TC and the fact that symptoms can overlap with other common causes of low-back pain, optimal management of this(More)
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