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OBJECTIVE An overview of different methodologies used in various intelligent decision support systems (IDSSs) for mechanical ventilation is provided. The applications of the techniques are compared in view of today's intensive care unit (ICU) requirements. METHODS Information available in the literature is utilized to provide a methodological review of(More)
After the initial infection with HIV, there is evidence of immune dysfunction despite an apparent normal clinical state. In the context that the lung is a major site affected by opportunistic infection during the progression of this immune dysfunction, and that some components of the immune system are activated during early HIV infection, we hypothesized(More)
We report the clinical and histologic findings of lung biopsies from 48 patients with pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (PLCG) and show how special techniques such as immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM), and high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can be useful in diagnostically challenging cases. Nineteen patients were(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF), a disorder characterized by mutations of the CF transmembrane regulator gene, is characterized in the lung by chronic inflammation, leading to progressive damage to the airway epithelium, bronchiectasis, and chronic obstructive lung disease. One process contributing to the airway derangement is the chronic burden of oxidants released(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by alveolar inflammation, exaggerated release of oxidants, and subnormal concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione in respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Glutathione (600 mg twice daily for 3 days) was given by aerosol to 10 patients with IPF. Total ELF glutathione rose transiently, ELF(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by accumulation of activated neutrophils and macrophages on the respiratory epithelial surface (RES); these cells release toxic oxidants, which contribute to the marked epithelial derangements seen in CF. These deleterious consequences are magnified, since reduced glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant present in high(More)
We assessed the nature and progression of airway mucosal disease and muscarinic bronchial reactivity in guinea pigs studied in groups of 4 at 2 h, 6 h, 14 h, 1 day, 2 days, or 4 days after ozone exposure (3.0 ppm for 2 h), and in 1 control group. Muscarinic reactivity was determined by measuring specific airway resistance as a function of increasing doses(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe and evaluate a new weaning and decision support system for mechanical ventilation. BACKGROUND FLEX is a computerized weaning and decision support system for mechanical ventilation that unlike previous rule-based systems derives many of its rules on the basis of the conditions of individual patients. This system can be used in a wide(More)
BACKGROUND Concentrations of glutathione, a ubiquitous tripeptide with immune enhancing and antioxidant properties, are decreased in the blood and lung epithelial lining fluid of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Since the lung is the most common site of infection in those who progress to AIDS it is rational to consider whether it(More)
The effects of cyclophosphamide and cortisone acetate treatment on O3-induced changes in airway mucosal morphology and bronchial reactivity were assessed in guinea pigs. Animals in groups of four were studied at 2 or 6 h after O3 (3.0 ppm, 2 h) and in one control group. Reactivity was determined by measuring specific airway resistance during intravenous(More)