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Human small nuclear RNA gene transcription by RNA polymerases II and III depends upon promoter recognition by the SNAPC general transcription factor. DNA binding by SNAPC involves direct DNA contacts by the SNAP190 subunit in cooperation with SNAP50 and SNAP43. The data presented herein shows that SNAP50 plays an important role in DNA binding by SNAPC(More)
We report a "running start, two-bond" protocol to analyze elongation by human RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). In this procedure, the running start allowed us to measure rapid rates of elongation and provided detailed insight into the RNAP II mechanism. Formation of two bonds was tracked to ensure that at least one translocation event was analyzed. By using(More)
Protein-chromophore interactions are a central component of a wide variety of critical biological processes such as color vision and photosynthesis. To understand the fundamental elements that contribute to spectral tuning of a chromophore inside the protein cavity, we redesigned human cellular retinol binding protein II (hCRBPII) to fully encapsulate(More)
Layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte adsorption is a simple, convenient method for introducing ion-exchange sites in porous membranes. This study demonstrates that adsorption of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-containing films at pH 3 rather than pH 5 increases the protein-binding capacity of such polyelectrolyte-modified membranes 3-6-fold. The low adsorption pH(More)
Human small nuclear (sn) RNA genes are transcribed by either RNA polymerase II or III depending upon the arrangement of their core promoter elements. Regardless of polymerase specificity, these genes share a requirement for a general transcription factor called the snRNA activating protein complex or SNAP(C). This multi-subunit complex recognizes the(More)
Transcriptional activation of the human U1 snRNA genes is dependent on a noncanonical octamer element contained within an upstream enhancer. The U1 octamer only weakly recruits the Oct-1 POU domain, although recruitment is stimulated by a peptide containing the Oct-1-binding domain of SNAP190. Structural analysis of the Oct-1 POU domain/U1 octamer/SNAP190(More)
The evolution of a variety of important chromophore-dependent biological processes, including microbial light sensing and mammalian color vision, relies on protein modifications that alter the spectral characteristics of a bound chromophore. Three different color opsins share the same chromophore, but have three distinct absorptions that together cover the(More)
Protein reengineering of cellular retinoic acid binding protein II (CRABPII) has yielded a genetically addressable system, capable of binding a profluorophoric chromophore that results in fluorescent protein/chromophore complexes. These complexes exhibit far-red emission, with high quantum efficiencies and brightness and also exhibit excellent pH stability(More)
Repeating sequences generated from RNA gene fusions/ligations dominate ancient life, indicating central importance of building structural complexity in evolving biological systems. A simple and coherent story of life on earth is told from tracking repeating motifs that generate α/β proteins, 2-double-Ψ-β-barrel (DPBB) type RNA polymerases (RNAPs), general(More)
The structural integrity of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II (CRABPII) has been investigated using the crystal structures of CRABPII mutants. The overall fold was well maintained by these CRABPII mutants, each of which carried multiple different mutations. A water-mediated network is found to be present across the large binding cavity, extending(More)