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Analytical solutions for point and variance estimators of the mediated effect, the ratio of the mediated to the direct effect, and the proportion of the total effect that is mediated were studied with statistical simulations. We compared several approximate solutions based on the multivariate delta method and second order Taylor series expansions to the(More)
The entire early adolescent population of the 15 communities that constitute the Kansas City (Kansas and Missouri) metropolitan area has participated in a community-based program for prevention of drug abuse since September 1984. The Kansas City area is the first of two major metropolitan sites being evaluated in the Midwestern Prevention Project, a(More)
BACKGROUND Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators generated from arachidonic acid (polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acid) by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase. Since atherosclerosis involves arterial inflammation, we hypothesized that a polymorphism in the 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter could relate to atherosclerosis in humans and that this effect could interact with the(More)
BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies found weak protective relations between dietary fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease events. However, few of the studies addressed possible mechanisms of the effect. OBJECTIVE In the present study, we estimated relations between the progression of atherosclerosis and the intake of selective dietary(More)
The relation between mortality (all cause; cancer; cardiovascular diseases (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), codes 390-459); ischemic heart diseases (ICD-9 codes 410-414)) and exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) was investigated in a retrospective cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,189(More)
This article reviews major risk factors for cigarette smoking, alcohol, and other drug abuse and promising community-based approaches to primary prevention. In a longitudinal experimental study, 8 representative Kansas City communities were assigned randomly to program (school, parent, mass media, and community organization) and control (mass media and(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the patterns of growth of visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and total body fat over a 3- to 5-year period in white and African American children. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Children (mean age: 8.1 +/- 1.6 years at baseline) were recruited from Birmingham, Alabama, and those with three or more repeated annual measurements(More)
BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is thought to be a contributor to coronary heart disease (CHD), and components of the syndrome have been identified as possible therapeutic targets. Previous data implicate neurohumoral activation related to psychosocial stress as a contributor to the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of(More)
Self reports from 1,645 Latino mothers of Mexican descent who participated in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were used to relate the birthweight of their infants to the HHANES acculturation index. After controlling for parity, a one point increase on the acculturation scale was found to be associated with a 1.19 (95% CI =(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent epidemiologic and animal model data suggest that oxygenated carotenoids are protective against early atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between atherosclerotic progression, measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and plasma levels of oxygenated and hydrocarbon carotenoids, tocopherols, retinol, and ascorbic acid. (More)