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The spinosyns are a family of potent and highly selective insect control agents that display a favorable environmental profile. As some regions of the spinosyn molecule are recalcitrant to chemical modification, a targeted genetic approach was carried out to generate new analogues. The polyketide synthase (PKS) loading modules from the avermectin PKS of(More)
Improvements in the efficacy and spectrum of the spinosyns, novel fermentation derived insecticide, has long been a goal within Dow AgroSciences. As large and complex fermentation products identifying specific modifications to the spinosyns likely to result in improved activity was a difficult process, since most modifications decreased the activity. A(More)
An extended lipophilic system that incorporated some key elements of first-generation 2,6-dihaloaryl actives, such as 1, demonstrated desirable efficacy against chewing insects as well as sap-feeding insects. These four-ring systems, based on 2, were accessed primarily via Suzuki couplings of halothiophene derivatives with appropriately substituted boronic(More)
Growth differentiating factor-15 (GDF-15), also known as macrophage inhibiting factor-1, is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, which has been implicated in cancer-associated weight loss. The present study investigated the association between cancer-associated weight loss and plasma GDF-15 concentration, as well as other biomarkers, in(More)
Syntheses of various isomeric dihydropiperazines can be approached successfully by taking advantage of the regioselective monothionation of their respective diones. Preparation of the precursor unsymmetrical N-substituted piperazinediones from readily available diamines is key to this selectivity. The dihydropiperazine ring system, as exemplified in(More)
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