Learn More
Many countries are stockpiling face masks for use as a nonpharmaceutical intervention to control virus transmission during an influenza pandemic. We conducted a prospective cluster-randomized trial comparing surgical masks, non-fit-tested P2 masks, and no masks in prevention of influenza-like illness (ILI) in households. Mask use adherence was(More)
The pathogenesis of generalized microvascular injury following hemorrhagic shock and total ischemia appears to be dependent on leukocytes interacting with the venular endothelium. The purpose of this study was to compare leukocyte adherence and sequestration following hemorrhagic shock with that of total ischemia in the small bowel mesentery of rats.(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses that is primarily maintained in nature by transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds. Occasionally, WNV infects and causes disease in other vertebrates, including humans and horses. West Nile virus has re-emerged as an important pathogen(More)
We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the minimal active dose and extent of activity of intravesicular carboprost for the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis after marrow transplantation. METHODS Twenty-four adults with grade 3 or 4 hemorrhagic cystitis were treated. All but 2 had failed other local therapy. Treatment was initiated at a median of 32 days post-transplant.(More)
Rotavirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. Two rotavirus vaccines with demonstrated safety and efficacy in large scale clinical trials have recently received universal funding in Australia. We modelled specific outcomes of disease (hospitalisations, emergency department visits, general practitioner visits, and deaths) and(More)
We used the 2002 national serosurvey to evaluate a primary care-based young adult vaccination campaign, measure the reproductive number (R) and, together with vaccination coverage estimates, predict R until 2012. The campaign had no impact on immunity in young adults. R was estimated to be 0.69 and predicted to stay well below the epidemic threshold of 1(More)
Tissue damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury may be mediated by oxidative stress caused by reactive oxidant species. Since such reactive species are difficult to measure directly, changes in antioxidant concentrations are often used as an indication of oxidative stress. In this study, microdialysis membranes were inserted into the livers of anesthetized(More)
The purpose of our study was to 1) examine the effect of ischemia-reperfusion on gastric vascular resistance and motility, 2) determine whether endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced vasoconstriction is enhanced after ischemia-reperfusion, and 3) assess the effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on these ischemia-reperfusion-induced alterations. These experiments used a(More)
This study examined the effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on the gastric microcirculation. We measured changes in vascular resistance and filtration during intra-arterial infusion of graded doses of PAF and its metabolite, lyso-PAF, to an ex vivo gastric segment of alpha-chloralose-anesthetized dogs. PAF produced dose-related sustained increases(More)