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Many countries are stockpiling face masks for use as a nonpharmaceutical intervention to control virus transmission during an influenza pandemic. We conducted a prospective cluster-randomized trial comparing surgical masks, non-fit-tested P2 masks, and no masks in prevention of influenza-like illness (ILI) in households. Mask use adherence was(More)
West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses that is primarily maintained in nature by transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds. Occasionally, WNV infects and causes disease in other vertebrates, including humans and horses. West Nile virus has re-emerged as an important pathogen(More)
We investigated the capacity of internal border control to limit influenza spread in an emergent pandemic in the context of Australia, a country with a low-population density and geopolitical boundaries that may facilitate restrictions. Mathematical models were used to study the time delay between epidemics in 2 population centers when travel restrictions(More)
Ultrasonic backscatter properties of normal dog kidney parenchyma are examined in vivo to determine sources of acoustic scattering. We systematically varied the renal perfusion and ureteral pressures to obtain detailed information about scattering sources that could not be seen under in vitro conditions. These data suggest that in normal parenchyma the(More)
Estimating the true burden of influenza is problematic because relatively few hospitalisations or deaths are specifically coded as influenza related. Statistical regression techniques using influenza and respiratory syncytial virus surveillance data were used to estimate the number of excess hospitalisations and deaths attributable to influenza. Several(More)
With a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine soon to become available for widespread use, several studies have modelled the cost-effectiveness of vaccination. These pioneer studies are likely to be influential on the design of further analyses, and we have therefore summarised and critically reviewed the strengths and limitations of their methods and(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES Signal processing techniques have been used to generate parametric ultrasound images that describe properties of tissue microstructure. METHODS Images of the average scatterer size (D) and integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) for normal dog kidneys were examined. RESULTS With parametric ultrasound the authors identified(More)
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to(More)
PURPOSE To examine the feasibility of escalating carboplatin area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), using dose predictions based on individual estimates of drug clearance, in a phase I trial of multicycle carboplatin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy with peripheral-blood stem-cell (PBSC) replacement. PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty-four(More)