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High-resolution gravity data obtained from the dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft show that the bulk density of the Moon's highlands crust is 2550 kilograms per cubic meter, substantially lower than generally assumed. When combined with remote sensing and sample data, this density implies an average crustal porosity of 12% to(More)
Analyses of laser ranges to the Moon provide increasingly stringent limits on any violation of the equivalence principle (EP); they also enable several very accurate tests of relativistic gravity. These analyses give an EP test of Delta(MG/MI)EP=(-1.0+/-1.4) x 10(-13). This result yields a strong equivalence principle (SEP) test of(More)
The increased computational power and software tools available to engineers have increased the use and dependence on modeling and computer simulation throughout the design process. These tools have given engineers the capability of designing highly complex systems and computer architectures that were previously unthinkable. Every complex design project,(More)
A primary objective of the Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiment is to provide precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time series of the highly accurate measurements of the distance between the Earth and Moon provide unique information used to determine whether, in accordance with the(More)
This paper addresses the motivation, technology and recent results in the tests of the general theory of relativity (GR) in the solar system. We specifically discuss Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), the only technique available to test the Strong Equivalence Principle (SEP) and presently the most accurate method to test for the constancy of the gravitational(More)
Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for Earth and Moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations. Lunar rotational variations have strong sensitivity to moments of inertia and gravity field while weaker(More)
Laser pulses fired at retroreflectors on the Moon provide very accurate ranges. Analysis yields information on Earth, Moon, and orbit. The highly accurate retroreflector positions have uncertainties less than a meter. Tides on the Moon show strong dissipation, with Q = 33 ± 4 at a month and a weak dependence on period. Lunar rotation depends on interior(More)
Lunar laser ranging (LLR) is used to conduct high-precision measurements of ranges between an observatory on Earth and a laser retro-reflector on the lunar surface. Over the years, LLR has benefited from a number of improvements both in observing technology and data modeling, which led to the current accuracy of post-fit residuals of ∼ 2 cm. Today LLR is a(More)
Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which has been carried out for more than 35 years, is used to determine many parameters within the Earth-Moon system. This includes coordinates of terrestrial ranging stations and that of lunar retro-reflectors, as well as lunar orbit, gravity field, and its tidal acceleration. LLR data analysis also performs a number of(More)