James G. Townsel

Learn More
Alterations in cholinergic function due to prolonged ethanol exposure (up to 9 months) were assessed by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and high-affinity choline uptake (HAChU) in three brain regions of the Long-Evans rat: frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and region of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). No statistically significant changes were(More)
Cholinergic neurons have both a low-affinity and a high-affinity choline transport process. The high-affinity choline transport is sodium dependent and thus it can be referred to as choline cotransport. Choline cotransport has been shown to be up-regulated by neuronal activity. Protein kinase C has also been shown to regulate choline cotransport. Both forms(More)
The involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of [3H]choline cotransport was studied in Limulus brain hemi-slice preparations. The PKC activators, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), significantly decreased [3H]choline cotransport. Conversely, the PKC inhibitors, staurosporine (STAURO) and polymyxin B(More)
We describe herein the cloning of a group of syntaxins in Limulus that are associated with the plasma membrane. Initially, multiple degenerate oligonucleotide primers (DOP) and probes were designed from sequences of known plasma membrane associated syntaxins. Combined experiments using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), colony(More)
The utilization of tissue culture in neurobiological studies is discussed for all phyla phylogenetically preceding Phylum Arthropoda. Only two phyla, Mollusca and Annelida, are represented in such studies. The members of Phylum Mollusca which have been so investigated are Aplysia, Helisoma and Lymnaea. The mollusc Aplysia has been used to investigate(More)
Screening of a human hippocampal cDNA library with a rat creatine transporter cDNA-specific probe revealed two types of clones. One identical to the published creatine transporter cDNA sequence (CRT1) and another (CRT2) with four segments of oligodeoxyribonucleotide substitution or addition in different sites of the CRT1 coding sequence. Translation of the(More)
It is well documented that the sodium dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high affinity choline co-transporter is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is essential to cholinergic transmission. Until recently this transporter had eluded cloning. Okuda et al. (2000. Nature Neurosci. 3, 120-125) recently reported the successful cloning of(More)
The presence and subcellular distribution of specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Limulus neuronal and cardiac tissue extracts were determined using polyclonal antibodies to individual PKC isoforms. Western blot analysis revealed that the brain, abdominal ganglia, cardiac ganglia and heart all contained PKC's alpha, beta, gamma, epsilon and zeta. PKC(More)