James G. Penland

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The knowledge that zinc is essential for growth and neuropsychologic performance and a report of zinc-responsive stunting in Chinese children prompted this project. This article summarizes findings from a 10-wk, double-blind, controlled trial of zinc repletion in 740 urban, 6-9-y-old first graders from low-income families in Chongqing, Qingdao, and(More)
Because manganese (Mn) is potentially toxic, and because dietary fat type may affect Mn absorption, the objectives of the current study were to determine whether diets containing very low or very high amounts of Mn and enriched in either saturated or unsaturated fats affected measures of neuropsychological and basic metabolic function. Healthy young women(More)
The simultaneous occurrence of Zn and Fe deficiencies in man has been known since the discovery of human Zn deficiency. However, it is not established that low Fe stores per se or Fe-deficiency anaemia infer low Zn status. Therefore our objective was to identify relationships between Zn and Fe status in premenopausal women without anaemia. We also examined(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc is essential for growth and cognition of experimental animals. Past research found zinc repletion improved growth of stunted Chinese children. Therefore we measured effects of zinc repletion on growth and neuropsychological functions of children. DESIGN Double-blind randomized controlled treatment trial. SETTING Elementary schools in low(More)
BACKGROUND The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey suggested some Mexican American children are at risk of zinc deficiency. OBJECTIVE We measured the effects of zinc and micronutrients or of micronutrients alone on indexes of cell-mediated immunity and antiinflammatory plasma proteins. DESIGN Subjects (n = 54) aged 6-7 y were randomly(More)
Zinc (Zn) is essential for synthesis of coenzymes that mediate biogenic-amine synthesis and metabolism. Zn from vesicles in presynaptic terminals of certain glutaminergic neurons modulates postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors for glutamate. Large amounts of Zn released from vesicles by seizures or ischemia can kill postsynaptic neurons. Acute(More)
Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary(More)
OBJECTIVE This exploratory study was designed to determine whether dietary calcium and manganese affect menstrual symptoms in healthy women. STUDY DESIGN Ten women with normal menstrual cycles completed the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire each cycle during a 169-day, live-in metabolic study of calcium and manganese nutrition. Women were assigned in a(More)
What are the biochemical and behavioral consequences of perinatal copper deficiency? Pregnant Holtzman rats were fed a modified AIN-76A diet low in copper (0.34 mg Cu/kg and 42 mg Fe/kg) starting on gestation d 7. Seven rats received copper in their drinking water (20 mg Cu/L) (+Cu) and 7 drank deionized water (-Cu). Treatments did not affect litter size or(More)