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Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are critical to innate and adaptive immunity to the intestinal bacterial microbiota. Here, we identify a myeloid-derived mucosal DC in mice, which populates the entire lamina propria of the small intestine. Lamina propria DCs were found to depend on the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 to form transepithelial dendrites, which(More)
Epithelial cancers are believed to originate from transformation of tissue stem cells. However, bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which are frequently recruited to sites of tissue injury and inflammation, might also represent a potential source of malignancy. We show that although acute injury, acute inflammation, or transient parietal cell loss within the(More)
Chronic inflammation increases cancer risk. While it is clear that cell signaling elicited by inflammatory cytokines promotes tumor development, the impact of DNA damage production resulting from inflammation-associated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) on tumor development has not been directly tested. RONS induce DNA damage that can be(More)
Chronic gastrointestinal and liver infections account for a significant percentage of human cancer deaths. Rodent models help elucidate how infection can lead to malignancy. Helicobacter pylori, the leading cause of human gastric tumors, produces similar disease in Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori, H. felis, and H. hepaticus induce stomach, lower bowel, or(More)
The MIT Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story matters. Abstract Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mediates responses to bacterial infection and autoimmune disease but it is also an important tumor suppressor. IFN-γ is upregulated in the gastric mucosa by chronic Helicobacter infection; however, whether(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is thought to result from either an abnormal immunological response to enteric flora or a normal immunological response to a specific pathogen. No study to date has combined both factors. The present studies were carried out with an immunologically manipulated mouse model of IBD. Mice homozygous for the severe combined(More)
The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of(More)
BACKGROUND The human intestine is host to an enormously complex, diverse, and vast microbial community-the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a profound role in metabolic processing, energy production, immune and cognitive development, epithelial homeostasis, and so forth. However, the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome can be readily(More)
The recently identified type VI secretion system (T6SS) of proteobacteria has been shown to promote pathogenicity, competitive advantage over competing microorganisms, and adaptation to environmental perturbation. By detailed phenotypic characterization of loss-of-function mutants, in silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses, we provide evidence that the(More)
Description: Biology and Diseases of the Ferret, Third Edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to provide a current, comprehensive reference on the ferret. Encyclopedic in scope, it is the only book to focus on the characteristics that make the ferret an important research animal, with detailed information on conditions, procedures, and treatments.(More)