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The bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of half of the human population, resulting in chronic gastritis, ulcers, and cancer. We sequenced ten gene fragments from pairs of strains isolated sequentially at a mean interval of 1.8 years from 26 individuals. Several isolates had acquired small mosaic segments from other H. pylori or point(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are critical to innate and adaptive immunity to the intestinal bacterial microbiota. Here, we identify a myeloid-derived mucosal DC in mice, which populates the entire lamina propria of the small intestine. Lamina propria DCs were found to depend on the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 to form transepithelial dendrites, which(More)
The "altered Schaedler flora" (ASF) was developed for colonizing germfree rodents with a standardized microbiota. The purpose of this study was to identify each of the eight ASF strains by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Three strains were previously identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus (strain ASF 360), Lactobacillus salivarius (strain ASF 361), and(More)
Persistent gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, yet only a fraction of colonized persons ever develop gastric cancer. The H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cag) pathogenicity island encodes a type IV secretion system that delivers the bacterial effector CagA into host cells(More)
Doublecortin-like kinase 1 protein (DCLK1) is a gastrointestinal tuft cell marker that has been proposed to identify quiescent and tumor growth-sustaining stem cells. DCLK1⁺ tuft cells are increased in inflammation-induced carcinogenesis; however, the role of these cells within the gastrointestinal epithelium and their potential as cancer-initiating cells(More)
The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of(More)
Epithelial cancers are believed to originate from transformation of tissue stem cells. However, bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which are frequently recruited to sites of tissue injury and inflammation, might also represent a potential source of malignancy. We show that although acute injury, acute inflammation, or transient parietal cell loss within the(More)
The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hypergastrinemia occurs frequently in association with acid suppression and Helicobacter infection, but its role in the progression to gastric atrophy and gastric cancer has not been well defined. METHODS The effects of hypergastrinemia, and possible synergy with Helicobacter felis infection, were investigated in insulin-gastrin(More)
BACKGROUND In the autumn of 1992, a novel form of chronic, active hepatitis of unknown etiology was discovered in mice at the National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center (NCI-FCRDC), Frederick, Md. A high incidence of hepatocellular tumors occurred in affected animals. The disease entity was originally identified in A/JCr mice(More)