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AIMS The operational definitions for the Craniomandibular Index (CMI) were redesigned to conform precisely to those of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), resulting in a single examination protocol, the Temporomandibular Index (TMI). The objectives were to evaluate interexaminer reliability of the TMI as well as its(More)
The Craniomandibular Index (CMI) was developed to provide a standardized measure of severity of problems in mandibular movement, TMJ noise, and muscle and joint tenderness for use in epidemiological and clinical outcome studies. The instrument was designed to have clearly defined objective criteria, simple clinical methods, and ease in scoring; it is(More)
Although most cases of temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders (TMJD) are mild and self-limiting, about 10% of TMJD patients develop severe disorders associated with chronic pain and disability. It has been suggested that depression and catastrophizing contributes to TMJD chronicity. This article assesses the effects of catastrophizing and depression(More)
Although most cases of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are mild and self-limiting, approximately 10% of patients develop severe disorders associated with chronic pain. It has been found that the widespread pain, depression, and sleep disorders associated with fibromyalgia (FM) may play a significant role in the chronicity of patients with TMD. This paper(More)
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common but misunderstood muscular pain disorder involving pain referred from small, tender trigger points within myofascial structures in or distant from the area of pain. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of this disorder after onset may lead to development of a complex chronic pain syndrome. A review of the clinical(More)
Four experts on myofascial pain syndrome (MFP) performed trigger point examinations and 4 experts on fibromyalgia performed tender point examinations on 3 groups of subjects (7 patients with fibromyalgia, 8 with MFP, and 8 healthy persons) while blinded as to diagnosis. Local tenderness was common in both disease groups (65-82%), but was elicited in a(More)
The CMI appears to be valid for use in clinical studies, but users must be aware of its numerous potential errors and its associated strict methodologic guidelines to ensure accuracy and reproducibility of results. The subjective nature of some items demands that the same rater who is unaware of the management status of the patient perform both evaluations.(More)
A cross-sectional study of prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangements, muscle disorders, and associated TM signs and symptoms was completed on 269 female nursing students. The prevalence of specific stages of internal derangements of the TMJ and muscle disorders was estimated, using established diagnostic criteria. The levels of(More)
Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the local twitch response in sixteen subjects with pain from active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle were examined and compared with recordings from the contralateral normal muscle bands in the same individual. Needle electromyography and a specific reproducible snapping palpation technique were(More)