James F. Young

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BCG, a live attenuated tubercle bacillus, is the most widely used vaccine in the world and is also a useful vaccine vehicle for delivering protective antigens of multiple pathogens. Extrachromosomal and integrative expression vectors carrying the regulatory sequences for major BCG heat-shock proteins have been developed to allow expression of foreign(More)
Neutralizing polyclonal antibody to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to be an effective prophylactic agent when administered intravenously in high-risk infants. This study describes the generation of a humanized monoclonal antibody, MEDI-493, that recognizes a conserved neutralizing epitope on the F glycoprotein of RSV. The affinity of(More)
The current vaccine against tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis strain bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), offers potential advantages as a live, innately immunogenic vaccine vehicle for the expression and delivery of protective recombinant antigens (Stover, C.K., V.F. de la Cruz, T.R. Fuerst, J.E. Burlein, L.A. Benson, L.T. Bennett, G.P. Bansal, J.F. Young, M.H.(More)
We describe here the selection of ultra-potent anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antibodies for preventing RSV infection. A large number of antibody variants derived from Synagis (palivizumab), an anti-RSV monoclonal antibody that targets RSV F protein, were generated by a directed evolution approach that allowed convenient manipulation of the binding(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of viral bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and children. Currently, palivizumab is the only approved monoclonal antibody (mAb) for prophylaxis of RSV. However, a small percentage of patients are not protected by palivizumab; in addition, palivizumab does not inhibit RSV replication effectively in(More)
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. We have isolated a full-length cDNA copy of 4.3 kilobase pairs encoding the ATP-citrate lyase mRNA by screening rat liver cDNA library using oligonucleotide probes designed from peptide sequences obtained from the purified rat enzyme. Expression of(More)
The immunogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum recombinant circumsporozoite protein constructs R16tet32, R32tet32, and R48tet32 in mice was examined by measuring antibody responses by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence, circumsporozoite precipitation, and inhibition of sporozoite invasion. All three constructs were found to be immunogenic(More)
Acid treatment of influenza A and B virus preparations followed by addition of dithiothreitol (DTT) and centrifugation through a sucrose cushion removes the HA1 subunit of hemagglutinin from virus. Rabbit sera made against these subviral particles and untreated virus were tested in a radioimmune precipitation assay using [35S]cysteine-labeled virus.(More)
A recombinant DNA Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine produced in Escherichia coli (FSV-1) was tested in doses of 10 micrograms to 800 micrograms protein in fifteen volunteers. No serious adverse reactions occurred. Antibodies that reacted with P falciparum sporozoite antigens by enzyme-linked immunoassay developed in twelve of the volunteers. The(More)
Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences of hemagglutinins (HAs) of influenza B/Lee/40, B/Md/59, and B/HK/73 viruses has allowed examination of the molecular basis of antigenic variation in type B viruses. As seen with influenza type A viruses, antigenic drift in influenza B viruses proceeds mostly through the accumulation of amino acid(More)