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The efficacy of three gastric restriction operations were compared in a prospective randomized study of 310 morbidly obese subjects. The median patient age was 34 years (range, 18 to 62 years). They were predominantly female (13:1) and had a median pre-operative weight that was 198% of their ideal weight (range, 160% to 318%). There was an equitable(More)
This review addresses changes in the ecology of vectors and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases which result from deforestation. Selected examples are considered from viral and parasitic infections (arboviruses, malaria, the leishmaniases, filariases, Chagas Disease and schistosomiasis) where disease patterns have been directly or indirectly influenced by(More)
BACKGROUND Contractile reserve, improvement in contractile function during inotropic stimulation, is a proposed marker of viable myocardium. This study was designed to address, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction due to chronic coronary artery disease, whether contractile reserve depends on myocardial blood flow. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied(More)
The aerial larvicidng operation of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme of the World Health Organization which began in February 1975 resulted in a sharp reduction in Simulium damnosum numbers. However, at the onset of the rainy season the fly population increased in certain areas. Detailed surveys both on the ground and by helicopter did not reveal any(More)
The increase of population of biting S. damnosum s.l. at a breeding site situated within the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area of West Africa following a temporary cessation of insecticidal treatments was studied by making every day collections on human bait at five catching sites and for 2--3 days per week at seven others, between 17 January and 9(More)
The phenomenon of aggregated oviposition in blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions, using wild-caught females of the Simulium damnosum complex in Sierra Leone. A method was developed for inducing Simulium females to lay eggs, and used as a bioassay to measure the responses of gravid S. damnosum s.l. to(More)
The history of onchocerciasis control in Africa and the genesis of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) are briefly reviewed. The importance of experience gained in anti-locust campaigns in helping to plan the OCP is stressed. Members of the Simulium damnosum species complex are the vectors of onchocerciasis, which OCP is(More)
With positron emission tomography, the resting flow abnormalities underlying reversible left ventricular dysfunction in 17 patients with chronic coronary artery disease were delineated. The level of flow in reversible dysfuncTional segments (i.e., those demonstrating improvement after revascularization) was markedly variable, ranging from 0.32 to 1.25(More)
A rapid and cheap method for mapping the endemicity levels of onchocerciasis in both forest and savanna areas, where the vectors are members of the Simulium damnosum complex, is described. The selection of the study communities is based on a general understanding of the vectors' ecology and biassed towards those at highest risk of onchocerciasis, although(More)