James F. Sumowski

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OBJECTIVE Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to(More)
According to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, neuropsychological expression of brain disease is attenuated among persons with higher education or premorbid intelligence. The current research examined cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (MS) by investigating whether the negative effect of brain atrophy on information processing (IP) efficiency is(More)
The cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in people with neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's; disease and multiple sclerosis. Lifetime intellectual enrichment (estimated with education or vocabulary knowledge) lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, such(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system affecting millions of people worldwide. In addition to the disabling physical symptoms of MS, roughly 65% of individuals with MS also experience significant cognitive dysfunction, especially in the domains of learning/memory, processing speed (PS) and working memory (WM). The purpose of this(More)
Cognitive impairment is common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but some patients are able to withstand considerable disease burden (e.g. white matter lesions, cerebral atrophy) without cognitive impairment (cognitive inefficiency, memory decline). What protects these patients from cognitive impairment? We review the literature on cognitive(More)
OBJECTIVE We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure(More)
Cognitive reserve theory helps to explain the neuropsychological expression of neurologic disease (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; Stern, 2006). Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurologic disease characterized by information processing inefficiency and verbal learning and memory deficits. The current study is the first to investigate whether higher cognitive(More)
Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory(More)
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However, many aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with MS(More)
The testing effect is a robust cognitive phenomenon by which memory retrieval on a test improves subsequent recall more than restudying. Also known as retrieval practice, the testing effect has been studied almost exclusively in healthy undergraduates. The current study investigated whether retrieval practice during testing leads to better delayed recall(More)