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The testing effect is a robust cognitive phenomenon by which memory retrieval on a test improves subsequent recall more than restudying. Also known as retrieval practice, the testing effect has been studied almost exclusively in healthy undergraduates. The current study investigated whether retrieval practice during testing leads to better delayed recall(More)
Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory(More)
OBJECTIVE Based on the theories of brain reserve and cognitive reserve, we investigated whether larger maximal lifetime brain growth (MLBG) and/or greater lifetime intellectual enrichment protect against cognitive decline over time. METHODS Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent baseline and 4.5-year follow-up evaluations of cognitive(More)
In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However, many aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with MS(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer memory impairment but the link between MS-related neuroanatomical changes (brain atrophy) and memory is relatively weak. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate task-induced default network (DN) deactivation as a neurophysiologic(More)
According to the cognitive reserve hypothesis, neuropsychological expression of brain disease is attenuated among persons with higher education or premorbid intelligence. The current research examined cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis (MS) by investigating whether the negative effect of brain atrophy on information processing (IP) efficiency is(More)
OBJECTIVE Learning and memory impairments are prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, such deficits are only weakly associated with MS disease severity (brain atrophy). The cognitive reserve hypothesis states that greater lifetime intellectual enrichment lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, thereby helping to(More)
The cognitive reserve hypothesis helps to explain the incomplete relationship between brain disease and cognitive status in people with neurologic diseases, including Alzheimer's; disease and multiple sclerosis. Lifetime intellectual enrichment (estimated with education or vocabulary knowledge) lessens the negative impact of brain disease on cognition, such(More)
OBJECTIVE Consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis, higher education and vocabulary help persons with Alzheimer disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) better withstand neuropathology before developing cognitive impairment. Also, premorbid cognitive leisure (e.g., reading, hobbies) is an independent source of cognitive reserve for elders with AD,(More)
Cognitive impairment is common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but some patients are able to withstand considerable disease burden (e.g. white matter lesions, cerebral atrophy) without cognitive impairment (cognitive inefficiency, memory decline). What protects these patients from cognitive impairment? We review the literature on cognitive(More)