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As a result of human-to-pig transmission, pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in pigs soon after it emerged in humans. In the United States, this transmission was quickly followed by multiple reassortment between the pandemic virus and endemic swine viruses. Nine reassortant viruses representing 7 genotypes were detected in commercial pig(More)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) displays notorious genetic, antigenic, and clinical variability. Little is known, however, about the nature and extent of viral variation present within naturally infected animals. By amplifying and cloning the open reading frame 5 gene from tonsils of naturally infected swine, and by sequencing(More)
Veterinary diagnostic laboratories identify and characterize influenza A viruses primarily through passive surveillance. However, additional surveillance programs are needed. To meet this need, an active surveillance program was conducted at pig farms throughout the midwestern United States. From June 2009 through December 2011, nasal swab samples were(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare immunologic responses and reproductive outcomes in sows housed under field conditions following controlled exposure to a wild-type strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV strain WTV) or vaccination with a modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. ANIMALS 30 PRRSV-naïve(More)
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