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We generated transgenic mice that carry 4.6 kb of the mouse galanin gene fused to 2.5 kb of the rat PRL promoter. In all transgenic lines that carried and transmitted the transgene, there were significant increases in galanin messenger RNA and peptide levels in the anterior pituitary in both male and female transgenic mice, and the elevation of galanin was(More)
Regulation of galanin gene expression in the anterior pituitary (AP) is positively influenced by estrogen in rodents and undetermined in humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism behind estrogen induction of galanin by identifying any putative estrogen receptor (ER) binding sequences within the human galanin promoter that may(More)
Galanin is localized within specific cell types of the rat anterior pituitary gland (AP). Immunocytochemical studies at the light microscope level have shown that lactotrophs, somatotrophs, and thyrotrophs contain galanin in the intact female rat, whereas lactotrophs in the male AP do not. We recently reported that galanin and PRL release from(More)
Estrogen is a robust stimulator of galanin synthesis and secretion in the anterior pituitary. Galanin is colocalized in lactotrophs in the estrogen-treated anterior pituitary, and its roles in lactotroph function are still being elucidated. In the present studies, we quantified the phenotypes of estrogen-treated Fischer 344 rat anterior pituitary cells(More)
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been shown to increase the rate of nerve regeneration. Transient post-transection loss of target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is one mechanism proposed to signal induction of early nerve regenerative events. We tested the hypothesis that PEMF alter levels of NGF activity and protein in injured nerve and/or(More)
Both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL) systems have been implicated in the excitatory regulation of pulsatile LH secretion in the ovariectomized rat. The present studies were designed to examine the possible interaction of these two neuropeptides in controlling episodic LH release by testing the effects of central infusion of antibodies (Ab) to NPY and(More)
We previously reported that the rat posterior pituitary contains a potent PRL-releasing factor (PRF) which is distinct from oxytocin (OT), TRH, and angiotensin II (AII). The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether posterior pituitary extracts stimulate PRL release in the presence of dopamine (DA), 2) to determine the chemical nature of PRF, and(More)
The recently cloned leptin receptor (OB-R) is expressed in many tissues, including the anterior pituitary. It is not known whether OB-R gene expression is regulated by pituitary hormones. In the present study, we detected the long isoform of OB-R (OB-R(L)) in the anterior pituitary of normal mice using RT-PCR, but were unable to detect the short isoform(More)
We reported previously an increase in leptin receptor (OBR) gene expression in the anterior pituitary of human GH-releasing hormone (hGHRH) transgenic mice. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms regulating OBR expression in these mice. Compared with normal sibling controls, hGHRH transgenic mice had significantly greater(More)