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Apart from echolocation and the pursuit of prey by bats, the function of ultrasound in animal communication is poorly understood. This is mainly because of the broad range of responses that it can evoke and the widely varied contexts in which it is used (for example, in rodents of the Muridae family it may indicate distress in infants or a sexual or(More)
The reproductive success of wild animals usually increases with age before declining at the end of life, but the proximate mechanisms underlying those patterns remain elusive. Young animals are expected to invest less in current reproduction due to high prospects for future reproduction (the "restraint" hypothesis). The oldest animals may also show(More)
American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water(More)
This paper outlines the design of a specialized alpha-biofeedback system for use in the treatment of anxiety. The relationship of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha activity to various anxiety states is described, and the rationale for use of alpha-biofeedback training with chronic anxiety patients is explained. Those features of the specialized system,(More)
Humans are intensely social animals, and healthy social relationships are vital for proper mental health (see Lim and Young, 2006). By using animal models, the behavior, mental, and physiological processes of humans can be understood at a level that cannot be attained by studying human behavior and the human brain alone. The goals of this review are(More)
BACKGROUND Windscapes affect energy costs for flying animals, but animals can adjust their behavior to accommodate wind-induced energy costs. Theory predicts that flying animals should decrease air speed to compensate for increased tailwind speed and increase air speed to compensate for increased crosswind speed. In addition, animals are expected to vary(More)
The jump-yip display of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) is contagious, spreading through a prairie dog town as 'the wave' through a stadium. Because contagious communication in primates serves to assess conspecific social awareness, we investigated whether instigators of jump-yip bouts adjusted their behaviour relative to the response of(More)
Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field-and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in(More)
Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train(More)
In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes.(More)