James F. Demarest

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BACKGROUND In a small percentage of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), there is no progression of disease and CD4+ T-cell counts remain stable for many years. Studies of the histopathological, virologic, and immunologic characteristics of these persons may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to HIV(More)
Primary infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is generally followed by a burst of viraemia with or without clinical symptoms. This in turn is followed by a prolonged period of clinical latency. During this period there is little, if any, detectable viraemia, the numbers of infected cells in the blood are very low, and it is extremely(More)
Over the past decade antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the prognosis for HIV-1 infected individuals, yet achieving better access to vulnerable populations remains a challenge. The principal obstacle to the CCR5-antagonist, maraviroc, from being more widely used in anti-HIV-1 therapy regimens is that the pre-treatment genotypic "tropism tests"(More)
A small percentage of human T lymphocytes, predominantly CD8+ T cells, express receptors for HLA class 1 molecules of natural killer type (NK-R) that are inhibitory for T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-mediated functions. In the present study, it is demonstrated that the various NK-R molecules typically expressed by NK cells are also expressed on periheral(More)
An HIV-1-seropositive volunteer was infused with an expanded autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone directed against the HIV-1 nef protein. This clone was adoptively transferred to determine whether supplementing CTL activity could reduce viral load or improve clinical course. Unexpectedly, infusion was followed by a decline in circulating CD4+ T(More)
We previously reported on a panel of HIV-1 clade B envelope (Env) proteins isolated from a patient treated with the CCR5 antagonist aplaviroc (APL) that were drug resistant. These Envs used the APL-bound conformation of CCR5, were cross resistant to other small-molecule CCR5 antagonists, and were isolated from the patient's pretreatment viral quasispecies(More)
A SIGNIFICANT proportion (up to 70%) of individuals experience an acute clinical syndrome of varying severity associated with primary infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We report here studies on six individuals who showed an acute HIV syndrome which generally resolved within four weeks, concomitant with a dramatic downregulation of(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms of HIV disease are multifactorial and multi-phasic. The common denominator of the disease is the profound immunosuppression that occurs in the vast majority of infected patients. Studies in lymphoid tissues in HIV disease have provided considerable insight into the pathogenic processes involved from the earliest phases of infection(More)
In the present study, we have determined the kinetics of constitutive expression of a panel of cytokines [interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)] in sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from nine individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection.(More)
A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis(More)