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The need to easily and quickly count larger numbers of nanoparticles, in order to obtain statistically useful size and size-distribution data, is addressed via the use of a readily available, free, public-domain program for particle counting, NIH-Image (and 2 others derived from it, Scion Image and Image J), collectively referred to herein as Image. The(More)
The challenge of optimizing both performance and safety in nanomaterials hinges on our ability to resolve which structural features lead to desired properties. It has been difficult to draw meaningful conclusions about biological impacts from many studies of nanomaterials due to the lack of nanomaterial characterization, unknown purity, and/or alteration of(More)
Nanoscience, the study of materials with at least one dimension on the length-scale of 100 nanometers or smaller, and green chemistry, the rational design of products and processes with the aims of reducing waste, preventing pollution, and protecting human health and the environment, are emerging fields that take advantage of molecular-level design. The(More)
Ligand exchange is frequently used to introduce new functional groups on the surface of inorganic nanoparticles or clusters while preserving the core size. For one of the smallest clusters, triphenylphosphine (TPP)-stabilized undecagold, there are conflicting reports in the literature regarding whether core size is retained or significant growth occurs(More)
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