James E. Zacher

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To enhance presence, facilitate sensory motor performance, and avoid disorientation or nausea, virtualreality applications require the percept of a stable environment. End-end tracking latency (display lag) degrades this illusion of stability and has been identified as a major fault of existing virtual-environment systems. Oscillopsia refers to the(More)
By the use of scleral search coils a continuous record of human cyclovergence was obtained while two identical 80° textured patterns, presented dichoptically, oscillated in the frontal plane in counterphase through 1, 3 and 6° of cyclorotation at frequencies between 0.05 and 2 Hz. The amplitude and gain of the response decreased exponentially with(More)
We measured the gain and phase of horizontal and vertical vergences of five subjects as a function of stimulus area and position. Vergence eye movements were recorded by the scleral search coil method as subjects observed dichoptic displays oscillating in antiphase either from side to side or up and down with a peak-to-peak magnitude of 0.5° at either 0.1(More)
Virtual reality displays introduce spatial distortions that are very hard to correct because of the difficulty of precisely modelling the camera from the nodal point of each eye. How significant are these distortions for spatial perception in virtual reality? In this study we used a helmet mounted display and a mechanical head tracker to investigate the(More)
The effect of field size, velocity, and visual fixation upon the perception of self-body rotation and tilt was examined in a rotating furnished room. Subjects sat in a stationary chair in the furnished room which could be rotated about the body roll axis. For full-field conditions, complete 360 degrees body rotation (tumbling) was the most common sensation(More)
We measured post-rotatory nystagmus and sensations of body rotation in standing subjects brought to rest in the dark after 3 minutes of each of the following conditions: 1) passive turning about the mid-body axis, involving only vestibular stimulation, 2) active turning about the mid-body axis, involving both vestibular stimulation and motor-proprioceptive(More)
In order to measure the perceived direction of "up", subjects judged the three-dimensional shape of disks shaded to be compatible with illumination from particular directions. By finding which shaded disk appeared most convex, we were able to infer the perceived direction of illumination. This provides an indirect measure of the subject's perception of the(More)
We measured the effect of the orientation of the visual background on the perceptual upright (PU) under different levels of gravity. Brief periods of micro- and hypergravity conditions were created using two series of parabolic flights. Control measures were taken in the laboratory under normal gravity with subjects upright, right side down and supine.(More)
AQUA, an amphibious robot that swims via the motion of its legs rather than using thrusters and control surfaces for propulsion, can walk along the shore, swim along the surface in open water, or walk on the bottom of the ocean. The vehicle uses a variety of sensors to estimate its position with respect to local visual features and provide a global frame of(More)
The incorporation of haptic interfaces into collaborative virtual environments is challenging when the users are geographically distributed. Reduction of latency is essential for maintaining realism, causality and the sense of co-presence in collaborative virtual environments during closely-coupled haptic tasks. In this study we consider the effects of(More)