James E. Posey

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The emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a significant impediment to the control of this disease because treatment becomes more complex and costly. Reliable and timely drug susceptibility testing is critical to ensure that patients receive effective treatment and become noninfectious. Molecular methods can provide accurate and(More)
The ability of a pathogen to cause infection depends on successful colonization of the host, which, in turn, requires adaptation to various challenges presented by that host. For example, host immune cells use a variety of mechanisms to control infection by bacterial pathogens, including the production of bactericidal reactive oxygen species. Prokaryotic(More)
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are among the most potent second-line drugs used for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), and resistance to this class of antibiotics is one criterion for defining extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB). Fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been associated with modification of(More)
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) highlights the urgent need to understand the mechanisms of resistance to the drugs used to treat this disease. The aminoglycosides kanamycin and amikacin are important bactericidal drugs used to treat MDR TB, and resistance to one or both of these drugs is a defining characteristic of extensively(More)
Tuberculosis remains a major global public health challenge. Although incidence is decreasing, the proportion of drug-resistant cases is increasing. Technical and operational complexities prevent Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility phenotyping in the vast majority of new and retreatment cases. The advent of molecular technologies provides an(More)
Ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is associated primarily with missense mutations in the embB gene. However, recent reports have described the presence of embB mutations, especially those at embB codon 306, in isolates susceptible to ethambutol. To clarify the role of embB mutations in ethambutol resistance, we sequenced(More)
Mycolic acid-producing bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of human and non-human mammals were recently assigned as a distinct genus, Segniliparus, because they diverge from rhodococci and mycobacteria in genetic and chemical features. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry, we determined the chemical composition of 65 homologous mycolic acids in(More)
Since the discovery of streptomycin's bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, aminoglycosides have been utilized to treat tuberculosis (TB). Today, the aminoglycosides kanamycin and amikacin are used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and resistance to any of the second-line injectable antibiotics, including kanamycin, amikacin, or(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of most human tuberculosis, infects one third of the world's population and kills an estimated 1.7 million people a year. With the world-wide emergence of drug resistance, and the finding of more functional genetic diversity than previously expected, there is a renewed interest in understanding the forces(More)