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The current study describes the development of a unique real-time PCR assay for the detection of mutations conferring drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The rifampicin resistance determinant region (RRDR) of rpoB and specific regions of katG and the inhA promoter were targeted for the detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance,(More)
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are among the most potent second-line drugs used for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB), and resistance to this class of antibiotics is one criterion for defining extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB). Fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been associated with modification of(More)
The ability of a pathogen to cause infection depends on successful colonization of the host, which, in turn, requires adaptation to various challenges presented by that host. For example, host immune cells use a variety of mechanisms to control infection by bacterial pathogens, including the production of bactericidal reactive oxygen species. Prokaryotic(More)
The emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a significant impediment to the control of this disease because treatment becomes more complex and costly. Reliable and timely drug susceptibility testing is critical to ensure that patients receive effective treatment and become noninfectious. Molecular methods can provide accurate and(More)
Ethambutol resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates is associated primarily with missense mutations in the embB gene. However, recent reports have described the presence of embB mutations, especially those at embB codon 306, in isolates susceptible to ethambutol. To clarify the role of embB mutations in ethambutol resistance, we sequenced(More)
The twin-arginine translocation (TAT) system secretes fully folded proteins that contain a twin-arginine motif within their signal sequence across the cytoplasmic membrane in bacteria. Using a green fluorescent protein fused with a TAT signal sequence, we demonstrated that Mycobacterium smegmatis contains a TAT system. By inactivating individual genes, we(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues to be a leading cause of mortality among bacterial diseases, and the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine for human use against this disease. TB prevention and control would benefit from an improved method of BCG vaccination that simplifies logistics and eliminates(More)
The newer fluoroquinolones moxifloxacin (MXF) and levofloxacin (LVX) are becoming more common components of tuberculosis (TB) treatment regimens. However, the critical concentrations for testing susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to MXF and LVX are not yet well established. Additionally, the degree of cross-resistance between ofloxacin (OFX) and(More)
Since the discovery of streptomycin's bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, aminoglycosides have been utilized to treat tuberculosis (TB). Today, the aminoglycosides kanamycin and amikacin are used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, and resistance to any of the second-line injectable antibiotics, including kanamycin, amikacin, or(More)
Mycolic acid-producing bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of human and non-human mammals were recently assigned as a distinct genus, Segniliparus, because they diverge from rhodococci and mycobacteria in genetic and chemical features. Using high accuracy mass spectrometry, we determined the chemical composition of 65 homologous mycolic acids in(More)