Learn More
BACKGROUND In 2002 the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defined seven specific entities, and provided standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria. In addition, the historical "gold standard" of histologic diagnosis was replaced by a multidisciplinary approach.(More)
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), characterized by obstruction of pre-capillary pulmonary arteries, leads to sustained elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure (mean >25 mm Hg at rest or >30 mm Hg during exercise). The aetiology is unknown, but the histological features reveal proliferation of endothelial and smooth muscle cells with vascular(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with familial primary pulmonary hypertension have defects in the gene for bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2), a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of receptors. Because patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may have lung disease that is indistinguishable from primary(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is progressive and often fatal; causes of familial clustering of the disease are unknown. Germ-line mutations in the genes hTERT and hTR, encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase RNA, respectively, cause autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita, a rare hereditary disorder associated with premature(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder that may be hereditable (HPAH), idiopathic (IPAH), or associated with either drug-toxin exposures or other medical conditions. Familial cases have long been recognized and are usually due to mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 gene (BMPR2), or, much less commonly, 2 other(More)
BACKGROUND Constriction of small pulmonary arteries and arterioles and focal vascular injury are features of pulmonary hypertension. Because thromboxane A2 is both a vasoconstrictor and a potent stimulus for platelet aggregation, it may be an important mediator of pulmonary hypertension. Its effects are antagonized by prostacyclin, which is released by(More)
RATIONALE Several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors and environmental exposures play a role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. OBJECTIVES We evaluated families with 2 or more cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia among first-degree family members (familial interstitial pneumonia, or FIP), and identified 111 families with FIP(More)
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a potentially lethal disorder, because the elevation of the pulmonary arterial pressure may result in right-heart failure. Histologically, the disorder is characterized by proliferation of pulmonary-artery smooth muscle and endothelial cells, by intimal hyperplasia, and by in situ thrombus formation. Heterozygous(More)
We performed a genome-wide association study of non-Hispanic, white individuals with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs; n = 1,616) and controls (n = 4,683), with follow-up replication analyses in 876 cases and 1,890 controls. We confirmed association with TERT at 5p15, MUC5B at 11p15 and the 3q26 region near TERC, and we identified seven(More)
The diagnosis and assessment of pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rapidly evolving area, with changes occurring in the definition of the disease, screening and diagnostic techniques, and staging and follow-up assessment. The definition of pulmonary hypertension has been simplified, and is now based on currently available evidence. There has been(More)