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Various chronic antidepressant treatments increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the functional importance of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, using genetic and radiological methods, we show that disrupting antidepressant-induced neurogenesis blocks behavioral responses to antidepressants. Serotonin 1A receptor null mice were insensitive to the(More)
—We study entrepreneurship and growth through the lens of U.S. cities. Initial entrepreneurship correlates strongly with urban employment growth, but endogeneity bedevils interpretation. Chinitz (1961) hypothesized that coal mines near cities led to specialization in industries, like steel, with significant scale economies and that those big firms(More)
Although colonization with any Helicobacter pylori strain is associated with peptic ulcer, it is uncertain whether the risk is greater with cagA(+) or cagA(-) strains, which differ in their biology. A nested case-control study was done, based on a cohort of 5,443 Japanese-American men examined on the Hawaiian island of Oahu from 1967 to 1970. A total of 150(More)
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas constitute ~ 60-75% of tumors found within the pediatric brainstem. These malignant lesions present with rapidly progressive symptoms such as cranial nerve, long tract, or cerebellar dysfunctions. Magnetic resonance imaging is usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis and obviates the need for surgical biopsy in most(More)
OBJECT Survival rates for high-grade brainstem tumors are approximately 10% and optimal therapy has yet to be determined. Development of a satisfactory brainstem tumor model is necessary for testing new therapeutic paradigms that may prolong survival. The authors report the technique, functional progression, radiological appearance, and histopathological(More)
OBJECTIVE Brainstem tumor models are required to advance the treatment for diffuse pontine gliomas in children. The feasibility of creating an experimental rodent model by inoculating newborn pups with tumor cells was examined. The study was performed to create an animal model for diffuse brainstem tumors. METHODS Eighty-two Fischer rat pups aged 12-24 h(More)
BACKGROUND Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among(More)
BACKGROUND Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are bacteriophage-encoded proteins that have been associated with hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and other severe disease conditions. Stx1 and Stx2 are genetically and immunologically distinct but share the same compound toxin structure, method of entry and enzymatic function. RESULTS(More)
PREFACE Area frames have been and will continue to be the foundation to the agricultural statistics program of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). The methodology applied by NASS to develop and sample area frames is of interest to domestic and international users of NASS's agricultural statistics. This interest has motivated the need to(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the expression patterns of B ephrins and Ephs in the cochlea and identify functional consequences of disruption of ephrin B/Eph B interactions in both cultured spiral ganglion neurons and in the cochlea of live animals. STUDY DESIGN The expression patterns of various B ephrins and Ephs were determined in mice with Lac-Z mutation.(More)