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The cpb genes of Leishmania mexicana encode stage-regulated, cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinases that are leishmanial virulence factors. Field inversion gel electrophoresis and genomic mapping indicate that there are 19 cpb genes arranged in a tandem array. Five genes from the array have been sequenced and their expression analyzed. The first two genes,(More)
The mammalian form of the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana contains high activity of a cysteine proteinase (LmCPb) encoded on a tandem array of 19 genes (lmcpb). Homozygous null mutants for lmcpb have been produced by targeted gene disruption. All life-cycle stages of the mutant can be cultured in vitro, demonstrating that the gene is not essential(More)
The adsorption of natural organic matter (NOM) to the surfaces of natural colloids and engineered nanoparticles is known to strongly influence, and in some cases control, their surface properties and aggregation behavior. As a result, the understanding of nanoparticle fate, transport, and toxicity in natural systems must include a fundamental framework for(More)
The need to easily and quickly count larger numbers of nanoparticles, in order to obtain statistically useful size and size-distribution data, is addressed via the use of a readily available, free, public-domain program for particle counting, NIH-Image (and 2 others derived from it, Scion Image and Image J), collectively referred to herein as Image. The(More)
Incorporation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into consumer products is increasing; however, there is a gap in available toxicological data to determine the safety of AuNPs. In this study, we utilised the embryonic zebrafish to investigate how surface functionalisation and charge influence molecular responses. Precisely engineered AuNPs with 1.5 nm cores were(More)
As the number of products containing nanomaterials increase, human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) is unavoidable. Presently, few studies focus on the potential long-term consequences of developmental NP exposure. In this study, zebrafish embryos were acutely exposed to three gold NPs that possess functional groups with differing surface charge. Embryos(More)
The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in antimicrobial applications, including a wide range of consumer goods and apparel, has attracted attention because of the unknown health and environmental risks associated with these emerging materials. Of particular concern is whether there are new risks that are a direct consequence of their nanoscale size.(More)
Nanotechnology continues to offer new materials and applications that will benefit society, yet there is growing concern about the potential health and environmental impacts of production and use of nanoscale products. Although hundreds of studies of nanomaterial hazards have been reported, due (largely) to the complexity of the nanomaterials, there is no(More)
A significant challenge faced in the use of nanoscale building blocks is developing parallel methods for interconnecting and patterning assemblies of the individual components. Molecular or polymeric scaffolds hold promise as a means of preparing closely spaced, specifically arranged nanoscale assemblies. Here we show how a biopolymer, DNA, can be used as a(More)