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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
To date, two cannabinoid receptors have been identified, CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors with non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists reduces pain sensitivity in animals and humans. However, activation of CB1 receptors is also associated with central side effects, including ataxia and catalepsy. More recently, a role for selective CB2(More)
The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is a cation channel expressed predominantly by nociceptive sensory neurons and is activated by a wide array of pain-producing stimuli, including capsaicin, noxious heat, and low pH. Although the behavioral effects of injected capsaicin and the VR1 antagonist capsazepine have indicated a potential role for VR1 in the generation(More)
A role for alpha4 integrins in different forms of the multiple sclerosis-like disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been demonstrated, but the individual contributions of alpha4beta1, alpha4beta7, and the related alphaEbeta7 integrin have not been determined. The P7 integrins alpha4beta7 and alphaEbeta7 play a central role in chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our(More)
Several recent reports have demonstrated a role for selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists in pain modulation, showing both analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities. While the mechanism of action is poorly understood, it has been postulated that these effects may be indirect, involving release of endogenous opioids. We have previously reported that(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in controlling the body's response to stress. Because painful conditions are inherently stressful, we hypothesize that CRF may act via CRF-1 receptors to contribute to the pain experience. Studies were designed to investigate whether blocking CRF-1 receptors with selective antagonists or reducing their(More)
1. Both clinical and preclinical models of postsurgical pain are being used more frequently in the early evaluation of new chemical entities. In order to assess the validity and reliability of a rat model of postincisional pain, the effects of different classes of clinically effective analgesic drugs were evaluated against multiple behavioural end points.(More)