James E. Galen

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PCR methodology was developed to identify Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Paratyphi B. One multiplex PCR identifies serogroup D, A, and B and Vi-positive strains; another confirms flagellar antigen "d," "a," or "b." Blinded testing of 664 Malian and Chilean Salmonella blood isolates demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity.
The broad objective of the research presented here is to develop a noncatalytic plasmid maintenance system for the stabilization of multicopy expression plasmids encoding foreign antigens in a Salmonella typhi live-vector vaccine strain such as CVD 908-htrA. We have enhanced the maintenance of expression plasmids at two independent levels. First, we removed(More)
Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NANase) is hypothesized to act synergistically with cholera toxin (CT) and increase the severity of a secretory response by increasing the binding and penetration of CT to enterocytes. To test this hypothesis, the NANase gene (nanH) from V. cholerae Ogawa 395 was first cloned and sequenced. Isogenic wild-type and NANase- V.(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis) in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for(More)
Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA was used as a vector to deliver fragment C of tetanus toxin as a single-dose oral tetanus vaccine candidate to elicit protective levels of serum tetanus antitoxin. Twenty-one healthy adult volunteers received doses of 1.6 x 10(7) to 8.2 x 10(9) CFU of one of two strains, CVD(More)
Attenuated Salmonella Typhi vaccine strains hold great promise as live vectors for presentation of foreign antigens from unrelated bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens to the immune system. Although this approach has proved quite successful in experimental animal models for eliciting antigen-specific mucosal, humoral and cellular responses, results have(More)
The recent expansion of the seventh cholera pandemic into South America emphasizes the need for a safe, long-lasting, protective, and nonreactogenic vaccine for this disease. Since the predominant Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in the world today are of the El Tor biotype, a bivalent vaccine containing both classical and El Tor biotypes may be desirable. We(More)
Certain serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica cause invasive disease (e.g., enteric fever, bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis, etc.) in humans and constitute a global public health problem. A rapid, sensitive diagnostic test is needed to allow prompt initiation of therapy in individual patients and for measuring disease burden at the population(More)
Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are a common cause of gastroenteritis but also cause invasive infections and enteric fever in certain hosts (young children in sub-Saharan Africa, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals). Salmonella O polysaccharides (OPS) and flagellar proteins are virulence factors and(More)
Salmonella typhi vaccine strain CVD 908 can deliver heterologous antigens to the host immune system following mucosal immunization. Stable expression of foreign proteins in Salmonella cells often requires antigen-specific engineering strategies. Fusion of antigens to stabilizing proteins has proven to be a successful strategy for rescuing otherwise unstable(More)