James E DiCarlo

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Bacteria and archaea have evolved adaptive immune defenses, termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems, that use short RNA to direct degradation of foreign nucleic acids. Here, we engineer the type II bacterial CRISPR system to function with custom guide RNA (gRNA) in human cells. For the(More)
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea use RNA-guided nuclease activity to provide adaptive immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Here, we report the use of type II bacterial CRISPR-Cas system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genome engineering. The CRISPR-Cas(More)
RNA-guided gene drives capable of spreading genomic alterations made in laboratory organisms through wild populations could be used to address environmental and public health problems. However, the possibility of unintended genome editing occurring through the escape of strains from laboratories, coupled with the prospect of unanticipated ecological change,(More)
High-frequency oligonucleotide-directed recombination engineering (recombineering) has enabled rapid modification of several prokaryotic genomes to date. Here, we present a method for oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering in the model eukaryote and industrial production host Saccharomyces cerevisiae , which we call yeast oligo-mediated genome engineering(More)
Rapid advances in DNA synthesis techniques have made it possible to engineer viruses, biochemical pathways and assemble bacterial genomes. Here, we report the synthesis of a functional 272,871-base pair designer eukaryotic chromosome, synIII, which is based on the 316,617-base pair native Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III. Changes to synIII include(More)
We describe complete design of a synthetic eukaryotic genome, Sc2.0, a highly modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome reduced in size by nearly 8%, with 1.1 megabases of the synthetic genome deleted, inserted, or altered. Sc2.0 chromosome design was implemented with BioStudio, an open-source framework developed for eukaryotic genome design, which(More)
In 2013, George Church and his colleagues at Harvard University [2] in Cambridge, Massachusetts published "RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering via Cas 9," in which they detailed their use of RNA-guided Cas 9 to genetically modify genes [3] in human cells. Researchers use RNA-guided Cas 9 technology to modify the genetic information of organisms, DNA, by(More)
Construction of genetic variant libraries with phenotypic measurement is central to advancing today’s functional genomics, and remains a grand challenge. Here, we introduce a Cas9-based approach for generating pools of mutants with defined genetic alterations (deletions, substitutions and insertions), along with methods for tracking their fitness en masse.(More)
Genetic disease affecting vision can significantly impact patient quality of life. Gene therapy seeks to slow the progression of these diseases by treating the underlying etiology at the level of the genome. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated systems (Cas) represent powerful tools for studying diseases(More)
Over the past few decades the ability to edit human cells has revolutionized modern biology and medicine. With advances in genome editing methodologies, gene delivery and cell-based therapeutics targeted at treatment of genetic disease have become a reality that will become more and more essential in clinical practice. Modifying specific mutations in(More)