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Behavioral studies have suggested that exaggerated reactivity to food cues, especially those associated with high-calorie foods, may be a factor underlying obesity. This increased motivational potency of foods in obese individuals appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system. We used a Philips 3T magnet and fMRI to investigate activation of(More)
Exaggerated reactivity to food cues in obese women appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system that includes the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether differences between 12 obese and 12 normal-weight women in reward-related brain(More)
Obesity can be accompanied by abnormalities in executive function and related neural circuitry. A useful task for studying executive function is delay discounting (DD), in which an individual chooses between sooner and delayed, but greater, amounts of money or other commodities. We previously found that obese compared to normal-weight women made more(More)
Impulsivity and poor inhibitory control are associated with higher rates of delay discounting (DD), or a greater preference for smaller, more immediate rewards at the expense of larger, but delayed rewards. Of the many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of DD, few have investigated the correlation between individual differences in DD rate(More)
Delay discounting (DD) is a measure of the degree to which an individual is driven by immediate gratification vs. the prospect of larger, but delayed, rewards. Because of hypothesized parallels between drug addiction and obesity, and reports of increased delay discounting in drug-dependent individuals, we hypothesized that obese individuals would show(More)
Behavioral studies have suggested that food cues have stronger motivating effects in obese than in normal-weight individuals, which may be a risk factor underlying obesity. Previous cross-sectional neuroimaging studies have suggested that this difference is mediated by increased reactivity to food cues in parts of the reward system in obese individuals. To(More)
We investigated visual alimentary alliesthesia in non-fasted (N = 369) and fasted participants (N = 257) viewing photographs of food. Fasted participants were asked to not eat for 12 h before the session. Each participant was shown food and non-food images and rated each image on valence (i.e., pleasantness). The strongest evidence of alliesthesia was found(More)
In Chuvash polycythemia, a homozygous 598C>T mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau gene (VHL) leads to an R200W substitution in VHL protein, impaired degradation of α-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, and augmented hypoxic responses during normoxia. Chronic hypoxia of high altitude is associated with decreased serum glucose and insulin(More)
  • Julie E. Gleason, David J. Corrigan, James E. Cox, Amit R. Reddi, Lauren A. McGinnis, Valeria C. Culotta
  • 2011
BACKGROUND In diverse organisms, adaptation to low oxygen (hypoxia) is mediated through complex gene expression changes that can, in part, be mimicked by exposure to metals such as cobalt. Although much is known about the transcriptional response to hypoxia and cobalt, little is known about the all-important cell metabolism effects that trigger these(More)
The present experiment examined whether neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) respond to intestinal infusions of long-chain fatty acids. Single-unit recordings were made of neurons located in and adjacent to the PVN during jejunal administration of linoleic acid. Jejunal administration of linoleic acid increased(More)