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Recent research using Drosophila melanogaster has seen a resurgence in studies of metabolism and physiology. This review focuses on major methods used to conduct this work. These include protocols for dietary interventions, measurements of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, trehalose, and glycogen, stains for lipid detection, and the use of gas(More)
Behavioral studies have suggested that exaggerated reactivity to food cues, especially those associated with high-calorie foods, may be a factor underlying obesity. This increased motivational potency of foods in obese individuals appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system. We used a Philips 3T magnet and fMRI to investigate activation of(More)
Delay discounting (DD) is a measure of the degree to which an individual is driven by immediate gratification vs. the prospect of larger, but delayed, rewards. Because of hypothesized parallels between drug addiction and obesity, and reports of increased delay discounting in drug-dependent individuals, we hypothesized that obese individuals would show(More)
Pyruvate constitutes a critical branch point in cellular carbon metabolism. We have identified two proteins, Mpc1 and Mpc2, as essential for mitochondrial pyruvate transport in yeast, Drosophila, and humans. Mpc1 and Mpc2 associate to form an ~150-kilodalton complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Yeast and Drosophila mutants lacking MPC1 display(More)
Obesity can be accompanied by abnormalities in executive function and related neural circuitry. A useful task for studying executive function is delay discounting (DD), in which an individual chooses between sooner and delayed, but greater, amounts of money or other commodities. We previously found that obese compared to normal-weight women made more(More)
The foraging ecology of mammalian herbivores is strongly shaped by plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that defend plants against herbivory. Conventional wisdom holds that gut microbes facilitate the ingestion of toxic plants; however, this notion lacks empirical evidence. We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations(More)
In Eukarya, stalled translation induces 40S dissociation and recruitment of the ribosome quality control complex (RQC) to the 60S subunit, which mediates nascent chain degradation. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures revealing that the RQC components Rqc2p (YPL009C/Tae2) and Ltn1p (YMR247C/Rkr1) bind to the 60S subunit at sites exposed after(More)
Exaggerated reactivity to food cues in obese women appears to be mediated in part by a hyperactive reward system that includes the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and orbitofrontal cortex. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether differences between 12 obese and 12 normal-weight women in reward-related brain(More)
The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research,(More)
Two experiments investigated mechanisms underlying the decrease in food intake produced by lipid infusions into the jejunum. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats with truncal abdominal vagotomy (TVx), selective hepatic-branch vagotomy (HVx), or sham vagotomy received repeated 7 h infusions of linoleic acid (LA), corn oil (CO), or saline through(More)