James E. Carpenter

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An electromyography (EMG) driven model of the upper extremity has been developed that incorporates musculoskeletal geometry of the glenohumeral and elbow joints, estimated relevant physiologic muscle parameters including optimal muscle lengths, and EMG activity. The model is designed to predict forces in muscles spanning the glenohumeral joint resulting(More)
Proprioception, or joint position sense, probably plays an important role in shoulder joint function. In this study, we assessed the effect of muscle fatigue on shoulder proprioception in 20 volunteers with no shoulder abnormalities. Shoulder proprioception was measured as the threshold to first detection of humeral rotation with the joint at 90 degrees of(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that shoulder rhythm is affected by rotator cuff pathology during arm elevation. We divided 42 subjects into 3 groups: those with full-thickness rotator cuff tears (RCTs) (n = 14), those with tendinopathy (n = 13), and control subjects (n = 15). Shoulder kinematics was recorded while subjects performed(More)
Recently, considerable importance has been ascribed to that portion of shoulder stability which may be provided by active muscle forces. Joint proprioception likely has a considerable role in muscular stabilization of the shoulder by providing information to the central nervous system for the management of muscular activity. Normal human shoulder(More)
Studies of experimental tumorigenesis have strongly implicated signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a key component in astrocytic neoplasia; however, its role in the growth of low-grade and malignant human tumors is not well understood. Correlative analyses of IGF-1, p53, and Ki-67 (MIB-1) immunohistochemistry and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)(More)
The reigning paradigm of musculoskeletal modeling is to construct deterministic models from parameters of an "average" subject and make predictions for muscle forces and joint torques with this model. This approach is limited because it does not perform well for outliers, and it does not model the effects of population parameter variability. The purpose of(More)
U p to 300 000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are performed annually in the United States. 14 An estimated 80% of these reconstructions are done with autografts, with the remainder being performed with allografts from various sources. 14 The best graft source remains a controversial topic. An ideal graft would replicate the anatomy and(More)
The classical approach of musculoskeletal modeling is to predict muscle forces and joint torques with a deterministic model constructed from parameters of an average subject. However, this type of model does not perform well for outliers, and does not model the effects of parameter variability. In this study, a Monte-Carlo model was used to stochastically(More)
The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) in Australia, Hawaii, South Africa, and various Caribbean islands, has posed great concern as to the possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in(More)
The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported(More)