James E. Caldwell

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Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals are involved in the destruction of neurons in various degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, three enzymes that contribute to the cellular defenses against free radical damage, were measured(More)
The authors sought to determine whether neostigmine, given at a time when no response to peripheral nerve stimulation could be elicited, hastened recovery from a vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB). The effect of neostigmine (70 micrograms/kg) in antagonizing a profound (no-twitch) vecuronium-induced (0.1 mg/kg) NMB in 40 healthy patients was(More)
UNLABELLED Electromyographic (EMG) activity can contaminate electroencephalographic signals. Paralysis may therefore reduce the Bispectral Index (BIS) by alleviating artifact from muscles lying near the electrodes. Paralysis may also reduce signals from muscle stretch receptors that normally contribute to arousal. We therefore tested the hypothesis that(More)
When given for a sufficient time and dose intravenously, neuromuscular blocking drugs eventually can enter the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To study the potential pharmacologic consequences of neuromuscular blocking drugs in the CSF, a model was developed in the rat by using an intrathecal infusion of these drugs. A cannula was stereotaxically implanted in a(More)
Administration of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (muscle relaxant) is a standard practice in many anesthetic scenarios. These muscle relaxants work by competitive antagonism of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at nicotinic cholinergic receptors within the neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscle (Martyn et al; Neuromuscular physiology and(More)
BACKGROUND The results from studies of muscle relaxants show wide variations among institutions. The authors hypothesized that some of this variability could be explained by differences in duration of nerve stimulation before drug administration (stabilization period). METHODS Train-of-four stimulation was applied every 12 s to both ulnar nerves and(More)
BACKGROUND Learning from adverse events and near misses may reduce the incidence of preventable errors. Current literature on adverse events and near misses in the ICU focuses on errors reported by nurses and intensivists. ICU near misses identified by anesthesia providers may reveal critical events, causal mechanisms and system weaknesses not identified by(More)
Venous bleeding during transsphenoidal surgery for resection of pituitary tumors is a common problem that interferes with the performance of the surgical procedure. In this study, data were collected prospectively from 50 patients to determine whether there were pre- or intraoperative factors (e.g., patient demographics, type and grade of pituitary tumor,(More)
The effectiveness of neostigmine 0.07 mg kg-1 and edrophonium 0.8 mg kg-1 as antagonists of profound neuromuscular blockade induced by vecuronium 0.1 mg kg-1 or atracurium 0.5 mg kg-1 was studied in 59 healthy patients. The antagonists were administered 5 min after total ablation of the twitch response and the end-point of recovery was a train-of-four ratio(More)
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