James E. Caldwell

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We have studied the interaction of CapZ, a barbed-end actin capping protein from the Z line of skeletal muscle, with actin. CapZ blocks actin polymerization and depolymerization (i.e., it "caps") at the barbed end with a Kd of approximately 0.5-1 nM or less, measured by three different assays. CapZ inhibits the polymerization of ATP-actin onto filament ends(More)
BACKGROUND The muscle relaxant vecuronium is sometimes administered to facilitate mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular paralysis lasting up to seven days may occur after the termination of long-term administration (i.e., more than two days) of vecuronium in critically ill patients. We investigated the role of clinical factors and plasma concentrations of(More)
BACKGROUND Rocuronium, a new nondepolarizing muscle relaxant, has a rapid onset of activity and may be suitable as a component of a rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia. We evaluated a range of doses on onset and duration of effect at the larynx and the adductor pollicis and compared these characteristics with those of succinylcholine. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Traditionally, reversal of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents was achieved using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, but these are unable to adequately reverse profound blockade. Sugammadex is a novel reversal agent, reversing the effects of rocuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus(More)
To determine the effect of end-stage renal disease on the pharmacokinetics of reocuronium bromide (ORG 9426), a new nondepolarizing monoquaternary steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug, the authors administered 600 micrograms/kg rocuronium (2 x ED95) intravenously to ten patients undergoing cadaver renal transplantation and ten healthy patients undergoing(More)
BACKGROUND The authors evaluated the influence of temperature on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vecuronium because mild core hypothermia doubles its duration of action. METHODS Anesthesia was induced with alfentanil and propofol and maintained with nitrous oxide and isoflurane in 12 healthy volunteers. Train-of-four stimuli were applied to(More)
Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans are major causes of systemic fungal infections, particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Metabolic labeling studies revealed that these organisms synthesize a small number of N-myristoylproteins, the most prominent being 20-kDa ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs). C. albicans Arf has(More)
The neuromuscular blocking effects and pharmacokinetics of ORG 9426, 1.5 mg/kg and ORG 9616, 1.2 mg/kg iv, two new nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs, were studied in 28 cats (i.e., 14 cats with each drug) with and without renal pedicle ligation. A gas chromatographic assay was used to determine the concentrations of ORG 9426 and ORG 9616 and its(More)
UNLABELLED The neuromuscular effects of dexmedetomidine in humans are unknown. We evaluated the effect of dexmedetomidine on neuromuscular block and hemodynamics during propofol/alfentanil anesthesia. During propofol/alfentanil anesthesia, the rocuronium infusion rate was adjusted in 10 volunteers to maintain a stable first response (T1) in the(More)
Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals are involved in the destruction of neurons in various degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, three enzymes that contribute to the cellular defenses against free radical damage, were measured(More)