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The phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning, in which a period of sublethal ischemia can profoundly protect the cell from infarction during a subsequent ischemic insult, has been responsible for an enormous amount of research over the last 15 years. Ischemic preconditioning is associated with two forms of protection: a classical form lasting approximately 2(More)
OBJECTIVES An in situ model was used to test whether and how multiple occlusions at reperfusion can protect rabbit myocardium. BACKGROUND Recently it was demonstrated that postconditioning in dogs salvaged ischemic myocardium. METHODS Control hearts underwent 30-min regional ischemia/3-h reperfusion, whereas in experimental hearts four postconditioning(More)
Ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning can be triggered by an intracellular signaling pathway in which Gi-coupled surface receptors activate a cascade including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, guanylyl cyclase, and protein kinase G (PKG). Activated PKG opens mitochondrial KATP channels (mitoKATP) which increase(More)
Previous studies have proposed that oxygen radicals may play a role in the triggering of ischemic preconditioning. However, studies evaluating the effects of radical scavengers have yielded conflicting results, possibly because of differences in the number of preconditioning episodes used. The present study tested whether N-2-mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG)(More)
Ischemic preconditioning renders the heart resistant to infarction from ischemia/reperfusion. Over the past two decades a great deal has been learned about preconditioning’s mechanism. Adenosine, bradykinin, and opioids act in parallel to trigger the preconditioned state and do so by activating PKC. While adenosine couples directly to PKC through the(More)
The mechanism whereby systole inhibits coronary blood flow was examined. A branch of the left coronary artery was maximally dilated with an adenosine infusion, and the pressure-flow relationship was obtained for beating and arrested states. The pressure-flow curve for the arrested state was shifted toward higher pressures and in the range of pressures above(More)
BACKGROUND Preconditioning (5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of recovery) renders the heart very resistant to infarction from subsequent ischemia. This study tests whether adenosine receptors might mediate preconditioning protection. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the effect on infarct size of pretreatment with either of two adenosine(More)
The critical time for opening mitochondrial (mito) K(ATP) channels, putative end effectors of ischemic preconditioning (PC), was examined. In isolated rabbit hearts 29+/-3% of risk zone infarcted after 30 minutes of regional ischemia. Ischemic PC or 5-minute exposure to 10 micromol/L diazoxide, a mito K(ATP) channel opener, reduced infarction to 3+/-1% and(More)
Bradykinin receptor activation has been proposed to be involved in ischemic preconditioning. In the present study, we further investigated the role of this agent in preconditioning in both isolated and in situ rabbit hearts. All hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of regional ischemia followed by reperfusion for 2 hours (in vitro hearts) and 3 hours (in(More)