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Grainyhead genes are involved in wound healing and developmental neural tube closure. In light of the high degree of similarity between the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) occurring in wound-healing processes and the cancer stem cell-like compartment of tumors, including TGF-β dependence, we investigated the role of the Grainyhead gene,(More)
BACKGROUND Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The recurrence rate ranges from 35-50% among early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. To date, there is no fully-validated and clinically applied prognostic gene signature for personalized treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS From genome-wide mRNA expression(More)
Pituitary homeobox 2 (PITX2) is a homeodomain transcription factor that has a substantial role in cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues. In this report, we have conducted a systematic study, using proteomic and genomic approaches, to characterize PITX2-interacting proteins and PITX2-regulating genes. We identified four novel(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in carcinoma cells enhances malignant progression by promoting invasion and survival. EMT is induced by microenvironmental factors, including TGF-β and Wnt agonists, and by the E-box-binding transcription factors Twist, Snail, and ZEB. Grainyhead-like-2 (GRHL2), a member of the mammalian Grainyhead family of(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of malignant melanoma has significantly increased over the last decade. Some of these malignancies are susceptible to the growth inhibitory and pro-differentiating effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). The molecular changes responsible for the biological activity of RA in melanoma are not well understood. RESULTS In an analysis(More)
Polymerase stop assays used to quantify DNA damage assume that single lesions are sufficient to block polymerase progression. To test the effect of specific lesions on PCR amplification efficiency, we amplified synthetic 90 base oligonucleotides containing normal or modified DNA bases using real-time PCR and determined the relative threshold cycle(More)
The fibrous shape and biopersistence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have raised concern over their potential toxicity after pulmonary exposure. As in vivo exposure to MWCNT produced a transient inflammatory and progressive fibrotic response, this study sought to identify significant biological processes associated with lung inflammation and(More)
Concerns over the potential for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to induce lung carcinogenesis have emerged. This study sought to (1) identify gene expression signatures in the mouse lungs following pharyngeal aspiration of well-dispersed MWCNT and (2) determine if these genes were associated with human lung cancer risk and progression. Genome-wide mRNA(More)
This study presents a novel network methodology to identify prognostic gene signatures. Implication networks based on prediction logic are used to construct genome-wide coexpression networks for different disease states. From the differential components associated with specific disease states, candidate genes that are co-expressed with major disease signal(More)