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Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals(More)
Drug abuse and dependence define behavioral states involving increased allocation of behavior towards drug seeking and taking at the expense of more appropriate behavioral patterns. As such, addiction can be viewed as increased control of behavior by the desired drug (due to its unconditioned, rewarding properties). It is also clear that drug-associated(More)
BACKGROUND As a test of plausibility for the hypothesis that schizophrenia can result from abnormal brain, especially cerebral cortical, development, these studies examined whether, in the rat, disruption of brain development initiated on embryonic day (E) 17, using the methylating agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), leads to a schizophrenia-relevant(More)
The effects of the psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine on the neurochemistry and function of the prefrontal cortex in vervet monkeys were investigated. Monkeys treated with phencyclidine twice a day for 14 days displayed performance deficits on a task that was sensitive to prefrontal cortex function; the deficits were ameliorated by the atypical(More)
BACKGROUND Drug addiction in humans is associated with abnormal metabolic activity within the amygdala and heightened control of behavior by drugs and drug-related (conditioned) stimuli. Drug-induced neuroadaptations, including activation of cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), within the amygdala may contribute to the(More)
BACKGROUND Psychomotor stimulant drugs can produce long-lasting changes in neurochemistry and behavior after multiple doses. In particular, neuroadaptations within corticolimbic brain structures that mediate incentive learning and motivated behavior have been demonstrated after chronic exposure to cocaine, d-amphetamine, and(More)
BACKGROUND Behavioral inflexibility is a feature of schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and behavior addictions that likely results from heritable deficits in the inhibitory control over behavior. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of individual differences in flexibility, measured using an operant reversal learning task. METHODS(More)
Alterations in motivation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including substance abuse and depression. Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse or stress is known to persistently induce the transcription factor deltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum, effects hypothesized to contribute to(More)
Repeated exposure to addictive drugs causes neuroadaptive changes in cortico-limbic-striatal circuits that may underlie alterations in incentive-motivational processes and reward-related learning. Such drug-induced alterations may be relevant to drug addiction because enhanced incentive motivation and increased control over behavior by drug-associated(More)
Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two, and the(More)