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MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) produces an irreversible parkinsonism in primates. Recent evidence suggests metabolism of MPTP to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) is required for toxicity. We have proposed that MPP+ may play a central role in the toxicity of MPTP, but direct assessment of the effects of MPP+ in brain is difficult.(More)
Apoptosis is a characteristic form of cell death which has been implicated in neurodegeneration. In this study we document the induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in vivo by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a neurotoxin. MPTP selectively damages dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. It is a potent inducer(More)
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae), danshen, is an annual sage mainly found in China and neighboring countries. The crude drug (dried root) and its preparations are currently used in China to treat patients suffering from heart attack, angina pectoris, stroke and some other conditions. The use of S. miltiorrhiza has been increasing in the management(More)
The possible ability of nicotinamide and ketamine to decrease infarction volume and DNA fragmentation was investigated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model. DNA fragmentation was measured with an enzyme linked immunoassay. Control infarct volume was 223.8 +/- 10.6 mm(3). Ketamine alone did not alter infarct volume, 233.2 +/- 61.8 mm(3).(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Nicotinamide protects against brain damage in ischemia-reperfusion. However, the dosage and time of treatment require clarification. It is also not clear if nicotinamide can protect against both necrosis and apoptosis. METHODS Dose-response and time-effect studies were designed. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by(More)
The vitamin nicotinamide can protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in the brain when used as a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). The intracerebroventricular administration of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-buOOH) to mice was used to simulate physiologic oxidative stress and apoptosis which may occur in some(More)
In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of the free radical generator, tertiary butylhydroperoxide, on DNA, was quantitated. Previous studies had established DNA as a very important site of free radical attack. The purpose of the study was to detect whether DNA was one of the primary targets of the toxin as well as to detect any(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE NAD has been reported to improve the dementia of the Alzheimer type or sensory register, short- and long-term memory loss in the aged. Although nicotinamide has been confirmed to decrease infarct volumes and neurological deficit findings in several animal stroke models, it is not clear whether its neuroprotective effects can prevent(More)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) caused transient alterations in vitamin E levels in every brain region examined. However, vitamin E returned to normal levels within a few hours in all brain regions but the substantia nigra, where at 2 days vitamin E levels first rose above normal levels. Vitamin E deficient mice were much more(More)