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Insulin acts in the brain to suppress feeding, whereas neuropeptide Y (NPY) has the opposite effect. Since fasting lowers plasma insulin levels and increases hypothalamic synthesis of NPY, we proposed that insulin may inhibit hypothalamic NPY gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we used RIA and in situ hybridization histochemistry to determine if(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the regulation of neuropeptide expression in forebrain neurons is responsive to external influences including changes in physiological activity. This has been demonstrated most clearly in studies of hippocampus where the synthesis and resting levels of several neuropeptides, localized within well-characterized(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent orexigenic agent capable of producing hyperphagia and obesity. NPY-containing neurons project from the hypothalmic arcuate nucleus to the paraventricular nucleus, an area known to be sensitive to the orexigenic effects of NPY. In this study we investigated the possibility that preproNPY messenger RNA (mRNA) content may be(More)
Neuropeptide Y potently stimulates food intake by acting within the hypothalamus. In this study we examined the possibility that hypothalamic neuropeptide Y expression is increased following food deprivation, as assessed by measuring the hypothalamic content of the mRNA coding for preproneuropeptide Y. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed free access(More)
The amounts of the mRNAs for the neuropeptide precursor proteins preproenkephalin, preprocholecystokinin and preproneuropeptide Y were measured in the entorhinal cortex of normal rats and rats that had experienced recurrent limbic seizures induced by a small contralateral lesion of the dentate gyrus hilus. Additionally, the amount of mRNAs for(More)
+-Kalkitoxin, a metabolite of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula, was synthesized from (R)-2-methylbutyric acid, (R)-cysteine, and (3S, 4S, 6S)-3,4,6-trimethyl-8-(methylamino)octanoic acid. A key step in the synthesis was installation of the anti,anti methyl stereotriad by means of a tandem asymmetric conjugate addition of an organocopper species(More)
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important regulator of skeletal muscle regeneration and has been suggested to be mitogenic for myogenic cells because it has been shown to increase the quantity of myoblast cells grown in culture over extended periods of time. Using the established C2C12 murine myoblast cell line, we observed that LIF treatment did not(More)
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid C-terminally amidated peptide found within the hypothalamus that can potently stimulate carbohydrate feeding. Moreover, the hypothalamic content of NPY can be modulated by peripheral hetabolic status. To further evaluate the regulation of NPY synthesis in states of altered metabolic homeostasis, we measured the(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression is known to be modulated in the mossy fiber projection of hippocampal granule cells following seizure. We investigated NPY biosynthesis and metabolism in an attempt to characterize NPY biochemically as a neurotransmitter in the granule cell mossy fiber projection. NPY biosynthesis was compared in normal control animals(More)