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Mounting evidence suggests that catechol metabolites of estradiol may contribute to the development of estrogen-induced cancers. O-Methylation, catalyzed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), inactivates catechol estrogens. COMT is polymorphic in the human population, with 25% of Caucasians being homozygous for a low activity allele of the enzyme(More)
In western society, the causes of several cancers--including breast, endometrium, ovary, liver, and prostate--have been linked to inappropriate and/or prolonged exposure to synthetic or endogenous steroidal hormones. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis with a focus on estrogen metabolism to 16 alpha-hydroxy estrone and 2-(More)
A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the association between serum concentrations of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), the primary metabolite of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the development of breast cancer up to 20 years later. Cases (n = 346) and controls (n(More)
N1-ethyl-N11-[(cyclopropyl)methyl]-4,8,-diazaundecane (CPENSpm) is a polyamine analogue that represents a new class of antitumor agents that demonstrate phenotype-specific cytotoxic activity. However, the precise mechanism of its selective cytotoxic activity is not known. CPENSpm treatment results in the superinduction of the polyamine catabolic enzyme(More)
Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter of hepatocarcinogenesis. Treatment of rats with EE and other hepatic promoters induces a mitosuppressed state characterized by decreased hepatocyte turnover and reduced growth responsiveness. Previously, we identified several nuclear and mitochondrial genome-encoded mitochondrial genes whose transcripts were(More)
  • J D Yager
  • 2000
A common thread linking the main risks for developing breast cancer in women is cumulative, excessive exposure to estrogen. The standard paradigm to account for this association focuses on increased cell proliferation caused by estrogen through estrogen receptor-mediated signal transduction accompanied by increased probability for mutation to occur during(More)
There has been increasing evidence pointing to the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) as a novel and important target for the actions of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and estrogen receptors (ER) in a number of cell types and tissues that have high demands for mitochondrial energy metabolism. This novel E(2)-mediated mitochondrial pathway involves the(More)
A valine-108-methionine polymorphism in exon 4 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene causes a 3- to 4-fold reduction in enzyme activity and has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This increased risk may be attributable to a decreased ability of the protein encoded by the low-activity allele (COMT(L)) to methylate and(More)
Reactive oxygen species are known to induce strand breaks and/or base modifications in DNA. DNA strand breaks are associated with many pathologies and programmed cell death. We have examined the ability of the polyamines and their analogues to protect phi X-174 plasmid DNA from strand breakage induced by a oxygen-radical generating system. Spermine and(More)