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Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter and weak hepatocarcinogen in rats. Previously, we demonstrated that EE enhanced the transcript levels of nuclear genome- and mitochondrial genome-encoded genes and respiratory chain activity in female rat liver, and also inhibited transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-induced apoptosis in cultured liver slices(More)
The role that in vitro systems can play in toxicological risk assessment is determined by the appropriateness of the chosen methods, with respect to the way in which in vitro data can be extrapolated to the in vivo situation. This report presents the results of a workshop aimed at better defining the use of in vitro-derived biomarkers of toxicity (BoT) and(More)
Long term exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The precise mechanisms responsible for estrogen mediated carcinogenesis are not well understood. The most widely accepted theory holds that estradiol (E(2)), acting through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), stimulates cell proliferation and initiates mutations arising from(More)
Inflammation is a condition stemming from complex host defense and tissue repair mechanisms, often simply characterized by plasma levels of a single acute reactant. We attempted to identify candidate biomarkers of systemic inflammation within the plasma proteome. We applied quantitative proteomics using isobaric mass tags (iTRAQ) tandem mass spectrometry to(More)
The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011-2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and(More)
Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta are present in mitochondria but little is known about their contribution to the overall constellation of cellular responses to 17beta-estradiol, which inhibits the early stages of apoptosis through membrane and mitochondrial, but not nuclear, ER signaling pathways. Whereas membrane ER signaling leading to inhibition(More)
Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with(More)
UNLABELLED Studies in hamsters, mice and rats have demonstrated that estradiol (E2), its interconvertible metabolite estrone (E1) and their catechol metabolites, in particular 4-hydroxy E2/E1, are carcinogenic in the kidney, uterus and mammary gland. Observational studies and clinical trials consistently show that sustained exposure to E2/E1 is associated(More)
Common recommendations for cell line authentication, annotation and quality control fall short addressing genetic heterogeneity. Within the Human Toxome Project, we demonstrate that there can be marked cellular and phenotypic heterogeneity in a single batch of the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 obtained directly from a cell bank that are(More)