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Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of catechol estrogens (CEs), using S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor. Several studies have indicated that the val108met COMT polymorphism, which results in a 3-4-fold decrease in activity, is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Folate, whose intake levels have also been(More)
Ethinyl estradiol (EE) is a strong promoter and weak hepatocarcinogen in rats. Previously, we demonstrated that EE enhanced the transcript levels of nuclear genome- and mitochondrial genome-encoded genes and respiratory chain activity in female rat liver, and also inhibited transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-induced apoptosis in cultured liver slices(More)
The role that in vitro systems can play in toxicological risk assessment is determined by the appropriateness of the chosen methods, with respect to the way in which in vitro data can be extrapolated to the in vivo situation. This report presents the results of a workshop aimed at better defining the use of in vitro-derived biomarkers of toxicity (BoT) and(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta are present in mitochondria but little is known about their contribution to the overall constellation of cellular responses to 17beta-estradiol, which inhibits the early stages of apoptosis through membrane and mitochondrial, but not nuclear, ER signaling pathways. Whereas membrane ER signaling leading to inhibition(More)
Long term exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. The precise mechanisms responsible for estrogen mediated carcinogenesis are not well understood. The most widely accepted theory holds that estradiol (E(2)), acting through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), stimulates cell proliferation and initiates mutations arising from(More)
Many of the major identified risk factors for breast cancer are associated with exposure to endogenous estrogen. In addition to the effects of estrogen as a growth factor, experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that catechol metabolites of estrogen also contribute to estrogen carcinogenesis by both direct and indirect genotoxic mechanisms.(More)
Inflammation is a condition stemming from complex host defense and tissue repair mechanisms, often simply characterized by plasma levels of a single acute reactant. We attempted to identify candidate biomarkers of systemic inflammation within the plasma proteome. We applied quantitative proteomics using isobaric mass tags (iTRAQ) tandem mass spectrometry to(More)
Dogs are sometimes referred to as "man's best friend" and with the increase in urbanization and lifestyle changes, dogs are seen by their owners as family members. Society expresses specific concerns about the experimental use of dogs, as they are sometimes perceived to have a special status for humans. This may appear somewhat conflicting with the idea(More)
The Human Toxome Project, funded as an NIH Transformative Research grant 2011-2016, is focused on developing the concepts and the means for deducing, validating and sharing molecular pathways of toxicity (PoT). Using the test case of estrogenic endocrine disruption, the responses of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells are being phenotyped by transcriptomics and(More)
The effect of dietary exposure to synthetic estrogens on hepatocarcinogenesis was evaluated. Diethylnitrosamine-initiated and 0.85% NaCl solution-treated noninitiated female Sprague-Dawley rats were transferred to semisynthetic diets containing mestranol (0, 0.1, or 0.5 ppm), ethinyl estradiol (0.5 ppm), estradiol (0.6 ppm), or mestranol plus beta-methasone(More)