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Prolonged use of high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may induce a dependence syndrome, and emerging evidence suggests that AAS effects on endogenous opioid systems may contribute to AAS abuse. The present study tested the hypothesis that high dose AAS treatment enhances endogenous opioid activity in rhesus monkeys as revealed by 1) tolerance to the(More)
Gender differences after acute cocaine administration have received little attention in spite of the fact that males and females respond differently to many drugs. Seven male and seven female occasional cocaine users received both an intranasal dose of cocaine hydrochloride (0.9 mg/kg) and placebo powder in a randomized order and reported subjective effects(More)
BACKGROUND Many patients with affective illness show partial or otherwise unsatisfactory responses to standard treatments, encouraging trials of combinations of pharmacologically dissimilar antidepressants. METHOD Records of consecutive outpatients with affective disorders only partially responsive to treatment with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) or(More)
OBJECTIVE Using a heuristic model of suicidal ideation and behavior, the two objectives were to identify correlates of (1) unique suicide-related outcomes (ideation, planning, planned attempt, unplanned attempt) and (2) specific transitions from one suicide-related category to the next. METHOD Analyses were conducted with data from the Collaborative Study(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the putative effects of a paternal history of alcoholism on the apparent detectability of brain alcohol in human subjects. METHOD Brain to blood ethanol ratios in two cohorts of men were determined, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in a brain voxel (2 x 2 x 2 cm) containing the putamen. The men were light(More)
BACKGROUND To determine the efficacy and tolerance of long-term clozapine therapy in refractory affective illness. METHOD Hospital records were reviewed for 193 treatment-resistant patients with a discharge diagnosis of bipolar disorder (N = 52), schizoaffective disorder (N = 81), unipolar depression (N = 14), schizophrenia (N = 40), or other disorders (N(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine predictors of non-fatal overdose (OD) among a cohort of 470 adults after detoxification from heroin, cocaine or alcohol. METHODS We examined factors associated with time to OD during 2 years after discharge from an urban detoxification unit in Boston, MA, USA using multivariable regression analyses.(More)
Nalbuphine hydrochloride, a nonscheduled opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic, is currently approved for the treatment of pain. Recently, nalbuphine dependence was reported in three anabolic steroid users in Britain. To further document this phenomenon, we conducted interviews on eleven subjects who reported nalbuphine use. Eight subjects were clinically(More)
INTRODUCTION Individuals with substance-related disorders are at increased risk for suicidal behavior. Identifying those at higher risk for suicide among this population is difficult and informed mainly on the basis of cross-sectional data. METHODS We examined factors associated with drug-related suicidal behavior using multivariable regression analyses(More)
BACKGROUND Some reports suggest that a subset of depressed patients may experience suicidality - that is increase or emergence of suicidal ideation (SI) or behavior--after initiation of an antidepressant. The time course and clinical correlates of this phenomenon have not been characterized in detail. METHOD We conducted a secondary analysis of a(More)