Inflammatory processes may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes and cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria was used to produce chronic, global inflammation within the brain of young rats. Chronic infusion of… (More)
The behavioral, biochemical, histological, and electrophysiological effects of a basal forebrain injection of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein, coupled to a monoclonal antibody against the low-affinity NGF receptor (192 IgG) were investigated in adult rats. Within the basal forebrain region, the low-affinity NGF receptor is exclusively expressed by… (More)
Glutamate may act via an N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA)-sensitive receptor site to destroy cholinergic neurons within the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple interesting properties of the NMDA receptor are relevant to its excitotoxic actions, e.g., glutamate is ineffective unless a glycine (gly) modulatory… (More)
The effects of selective cholinergic cell loss within the basal forebrain (BF) were determined using a task that requires shifting of attention between two visual stimuli. Discriminability between two stimuli and response bias were determined in young and old F-344 rats given BF injections of IgG-192 saporin (100 ng). The lesion reduced ChAT activity in the… (More)
The degeneration or dysfunction of cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be related to the vulnerability of these cells to endogenous glutamate (Beal, 1995; Greenamyre and Young, 1989). The administration of drugs that attenuate the toxic actions of glutamate in the early stages of the disease might… (More)
The present study investigated the effects of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) lesions in young (3 months), adult (9 months), and aged (24 months) rats by injections of either NMDA or AMPA upon performance of a delayed alternation task on a T maze. During phase 1 of testing, the interchoice interval (ICI) was 5 s and each rat was given 10 trials per… (More)
Toilet solid waste samples collected from five outbreaks among rafters in the Grand Canyon were subjected to sequencing analysis of norovirus partial capsid gene. The results revealed that a GI.3 strain was associated with one outbreak, whereas the other outbreaks were caused by GII.5 whose sequences shared >98.9% homology.