James D. Schiffbauer

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Abundant graphite particles occur in amphibolite-grade quartzite of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Wutai Metamorphic Complex in the Wutaishan area of North China. Petrographic thin section observations suggest that the graphite particles occur within and between quartzite clasts and are heterogeneous in origin. Using HF maceration techniques, the Wutai(More)
Soft-tissue fossils capture exquisite biological detail and provide our clearest views onto the rise of animals across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The processes contributing to fossilization of soft tissues, however, have long been a subject of debate. The Ediacaran Gaojiashan biota displays soft-tissue preservational styles ranging from pervasive(More)
In our research agenda to study the effects of immersion (level of fidelity) on various tasks in virtual reality (VR) systems, we have found that the most generalizable findings come not from direct comparisons of different technologies, but from controlled simulations of those technologies. We call this the mixed reality (MR) simulation approach. However,(More)
On the basis of putative nuclei and endospores, Huldtgren et al. (Reports, 23 December 2011, p. 1696) propose that embryo-like Doushantuo microfossils are nonmetazoan holozoans akin to mesomycetozoeans. However, both size and preservation preclude interpretation of internal structures as nuclei. Moreover, the authors may have conflated two different(More)
In terminal Ediacaran strata of South China, the onset of calcareous biomineralization is preserved in the paleontological transition from Conotubus to Cloudina in repetitious limestone facies of the Dengying Formation. Both fossils have similar size, funnel-in-funnel construction, and epibenthic lifestyle, but Cloudina is biomineralized, whereas Conotubus(More)
The well-known debate on the nature and origin of intracellular inclusions (ICIs) in silicified microfossils from the early Neoproterozoic Bitter Springs Formation has recently been revived by reports of possible fossilized nuclei in phosphatized animal embryo-like fossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China. The revisitation of this(More)
The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally(More)
A feather from the Eocene Messel Formation, Germany, has been demonstrated to have been originally structurally colored by densely packed sheets of melanosomes similar to modern iridescent feathers exhibiting thinfilm diffraction. The fossil itself currently exhibits a silvery sheen, but the mechanism for generating this optical effect was not fully(More)
Several positive carbon isotope excursions in Lower Paleozoic rocks, including the prominent Upper Cambrian Steptoean Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion (SPICE), are thought to reflect intermittent perturbations in the hydrosphere-biosphere system. Models explaining these secular changes are abundant, but the synchronicity and regional variation of the(More)