James D. Schiffbauer

Learn More
Soft-tissue fossils capture exquisite biological detail and provide our clearest views onto the rise of animals across the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The processes contributing to fossilization of soft tissues, however, have long been a subject of debate. The Ediacaran Gaojiashan biota displays soft-tissue preservational styles ranging from pervasive(More)
In our research agenda to study the effects of immersion (level of fidelity) on various tasks in virtual reality (VR) systems, we have found that the most generalizable findings come not from direct comparisons of different technologies, but from controlled simulations of those technologies. We call this the mixed reality (MR) simulation approach. However,(More)
The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally(More)
Abundant graphite particles occur in amphibolite-grade quartzite of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic Wutai Metamorphic Complex in the Wutaishan area of North China. Petrographic thin section observations suggest that the graphite particles occur within and between quartzite clasts and are heterogeneous in origin. Using HF maceration techniques, the Wutai(More)
The well-known debate on the nature and origin of intracellular inclusions (ICIs) in silicified microfossils from the early Neoproterozoic Bitter Springs Formation has recently been revived by reports of possible fossilized nuclei in phosphatized animal embryo-like fossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation of South China. The revisitation of this(More)
On the basis of putative nuclei and endospores, Huldtgren et al. (Reports, 23 December 2011, p. 1696) propose that embryo-like Doushantuo microfossils are nonmetazoan holozoans akin to mesomycetozoeans. However, both size and preservation preclude interpretation of internal structures as nuclei. Moreover, the authors may have conflated two different(More)
Ultrastructural and geochemical characterization of Archean–Paleoproterozoic graphite particles: Implications for recognizing traces of life in highly metamorphosed rocks. Astrobiology vol. 7: pp. 684-704. Abstract Circular graphite discs, among abundant irregular graphite particles, have been extracted from Archean-Paleoproterozoic amphibolite grade(More)
In terminal Ediacaran strata of South China, the onset of calcareous biomineralization is preserved in the paleontological transition from Conotubus to Cloudina in repetitious limestone facies of the Dengying Formation. Both fossils have similar size, funnel-in-funnel construction, and epibenthic lifestyle, but Cloudina is biomineralized, whereas Conotubus(More)