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OBJECTIVE To determine in humans the relative roles of intestinal and hepatic metabolism in the oral first-pass elimination of a CYP3A substrate using midazolam as a model compound. METHODS Midazolam was administered intravenously (1 mg) or orally (2 mg) to 20 healthy young subjects (10 men and 10 women) in a random fashion, and the disposition of the(More)
Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolizes a diverse array of clinically important drugs. For some of these (e.g., cyclosporine, verapamil, midazolam), CYP3A in the intestinal mucosa contributes to their extensive and variable first-pass extraction. To further characterize this phenomenon, we measured CYP3A content and catalytic activity toward the probe(More)
The in vivo intestinal metabolism of the CYP3A probe midazolam to its principal metabolite, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, was investigated during surgery in 10 liver transplant recipients. After removal of the diseased liver, five subjects received 2 mg midazolam intraduodenally, and the other five received 1 mg midazolam intravenously. Simultaneous arterial and(More)
Immunosuppression therapy with cyclosporine is often hampered by significant interindividual variability in the metabolic clearance of the drug. It has been suggested that much of the variability in cyclosporine clearance is due to differences in the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) content in the liver and intestinal mucosa. A study was conducted in liver(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Since February 27, 2002, patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have received priority for liver transplantation in the United States under the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system. We aimed to determine the impact of this system on liver transplantation for HCC. METHODS Data were provided by the(More)
To expand the donor liver pool, ways are sought to better define the limits of marginally transplantable organs. The Donor Risk Index (DRI) lists 7 donor characteristics, together with cold ischemia time and location of the donor, as risk factors for graft failure. We hypothesized that donor hepatic steatosis is an additional independent risk factor. We(More)
The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of mortality for patients transplanted with HCC. There currently exists no standard method for identifying those patients with a high risk for recurrence. Identification of factors leading to recurrence is necessary to develop an efficient surveillance protocol and address new potential(More)
Gram-negative bacterial and fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation. We therefore used selective bowel decontamination (SBD) to eliminate the endogenous source of gram-negative aerobic bacteria and Candida pathogens in an attempt to reduce the high incidence of infection related to these organisms.(More)
OBJECTIVES The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) help prevent allograft rejection but are associated with nephrotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) and CYP2J2 are polymorphic enzymes expressed in the kidney that metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, promoting kidney homeostasis. This study(More)