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OBJECTIVE To determine in humans the relative roles of intestinal and hepatic metabolism in the oral first-pass elimination of a CYP3A substrate using midazolam as a model compound. METHODS Midazolam was administered intravenously (1 mg) or orally (2 mg) to 20 healthy young subjects (10 men and 10 women) in a random fashion, and the disposition of the(More)
The in vivo intestinal metabolism of the CYP3A probe midazolam to its principal metabolite, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, was investigated during surgery in 10 liver transplant recipients. After removal of the diseased liver, five subjects received 2 mg midazolam intraduodenally, and the other five received 1 mg midazolam intravenously. Simultaneous arterial and(More)
Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolizes a diverse array of clinically important drugs. For some of these (e.g., cyclosporine, verapamil, midazolam), CYP3A in the intestinal mucosa contributes to their extensive and variable first-pass extraction. To further characterize this phenomenon, we measured CYP3A content and catalytic activity toward the probe(More)
The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of mortality for patients transplanted with HCC. There currently exists no standard method for identifying those patients with a high risk for recurrence. Identification of factors leading to recurrence is necessary to develop an efficient surveillance protocol and address new potential(More)
There has been a dramatic increase in the utilization of kidneys from donors after cardiac death (DCD). While these organs represent an opportunity to expand the donor pool, the assessment of risk and optimal perioperative management remains unclear. Our primary aim was to identify risk factors for objective outcomes, and secondarily, we sought to determine(More)
To investigate the role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies mutation in the pathogenesis of HCV infection, we analyzed changes in the genetic diversity of HCV genomes in 22 patients before and after liver transplantation by using heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) technology. All patients were infected with HCV genotype 1 and developed high-titer(More)
We report a prospective clinical and virological study of 18 patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation, selected because of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA positivity before transplantation. Nine of the 18 patients (50%) developed chronic active hepatitis (CAH) in liver allografts during the first year posttransplantation; hepatitis was first(More)
Direct retrovirus-mediated hepatic gene transfer results in permanent gene expression; however, gene transfer requires surgical hepatectomy (to stimulate cell division) and has been inefficient. We recently used recombinant adenovirus vectors that transiently expressed urokinase from mouse hepatocytes to induce hepatocellular regeneration in place of a(More)
To determine the histologic features of rejection and to identify nonrejection causes of human pancreatic allograft dysfunction, we analyzed 31 needle biopsy specimens (17 pancreatic, 14 duodenal) obtained under cystoscopic direction from 15 dysfunctional pancreatoduodenal allografts with exocrine drainage into the bladder. Eight allografts undergoing(More)