James D. Perkins

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Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) metabolizes a diverse array of clinically important drugs. For some of these (e.g., cyclosporine, verapamil, midazolam), CYP3A in the intestinal mucosa contributes to their extensive and variable first-pass extraction. To further characterize this phenomenon, we measured CYP3A content and catalytic activity toward the probe(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine in humans the relative roles of intestinal and hepatic metabolism in the oral first-pass elimination of a CYP3A substrate using midazolam as a model compound. METHODS Midazolam was administered intravenously (1 mg) or orally (2 mg) to 20 healthy young subjects (10 men and 10 women) in a random fashion, and the disposition of the(More)
The in vivo intestinal metabolism of the CYP3A probe midazolam to its principal metabolite, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, was investigated during surgery in 10 liver transplant recipients. After removal of the diseased liver, five subjects received 2 mg midazolam intraduodenally, and the other five received 1 mg midazolam intravenously. Simultaneous arterial and(More)
Numerous donor and recipient risk factors interact to influence the probability of survival after liver transplantation. We developed a statistic, D-MELD, the product of donor age and preoperative MELD, calculated from laboratory values. Using the UNOS STAR national transplant data base, we analyzed survival for first liver transplant recipients with(More)
To evaluate the possibility that distinct viral quasispecies play a role in the pathogenesis of progressive hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we performed a detailed evaluation of HCV quasispecies before and after liver transplantation in five patients infected with HCV genotype 1, three of whom developed severe recurrent hepatitis C and two of whom(More)
Immunosuppression therapy with cyclosporine is often hampered by significant interindividual variability in the metabolic clearance of the drug. It has been suggested that much of the variability in cyclosporine clearance is due to differences in the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) content in the liver and intestinal mucosa. A study was conducted in liver(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Since February 27, 2002, patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have received priority for liver transplantation in the United States under the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system. We aimed to determine the impact of this system on liver transplantation for HCC. METHODS Data were provided by the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C is poorly understood. This study examines the ability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to infect, replicate in, and produce progeny virus from perihepatic lymph nodes in vivo. METHODS Lymph node (LN) biopsy specimens were taken from 20 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection and end-stage liver disease(More)
Gram-negative bacterial and fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation. We therefore used selective bowel decontamination (SBD) to eliminate the endogenous source of gram-negative aerobic bacteria and Candida pathogens in an attempt to reduce the high incidence of infection related to these organisms.(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication at the cellular level is not fully understood. This study describes an optimized system for quantifying replication of HCV in hepatocytes and in liver tissues. A digital image analysis method was developed to quantify signal intensities of HCV genomic and replicative-intermediate RNAs in infected human liver tissues and(More)