James D. Nicholson

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Few clinically effective approaches reduce CNS-white matter injury. After early in-vivo white matter infarct, NFκB-driven pro-inflammatory signals can amplify a relatively small amount of vascular damage, resulting in progressive endothelial dysfunction to create a severe ischemic lesion. This process can be minimized by 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2(More)
The chemokine CCL27 has chemoattractant properties for memory T cells and has been implicated in skin allergic reactions. The present study reports the expression in the brain of two CCL27 splice variants localized in the cerebral cortex and limbic regions. CCL27-like immunoreactivity was identified mainly in neurons. Variant 1 was found elevated in the(More)
Ischemic optic neuropathy is a major cause of significantly reduced vision (1–3). It may be arteritic (AAION) or non-arteritic (NA-AION), anterior or posterior. NA-AION, the most common form (1–4), is characterized clinically by acute, monocular, painless visual loss with optic disk swelling (5). It is attributed to an ischemic insult to the optic nerve(More)
PURPOSE To examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and knockout of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the outcome of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS MCAO was induced in anesthetized male C57Bl/6 mice (WT) and TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4(-/-)) using an intra-arterial filament method. After(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of bevacizumab, a VEGF inhibitor, on optic nerve edema and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in a mouse model of optic nerve crush (ONC). METHODS Two hundred C57BL/6 wild-type mice were anesthetized. Right ONC was induced in 150 mice, of which half (n = 75) received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab immediately(More)
The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense. In conducting the research described in this report, the investigators complied with the regulations and standards of the Animal Welfare Act and adhered to the(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly believed to participate in the pathophysiology of a number of major psychiatric diseases, including depression. Immune activation stimulates the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to kynurenine, leading to the formation of neuroactive metabolites, such as quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid. These(More)
Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition(More)
The concept of the brain as an immune privileged organ is rapidly evolving in light of new findings outlining the sophisticated relationship between the central nervous and the immune systems. The role of T cells in brain development and function, as well as modulation of behavior has been demonstrated by an increasing number of studies. Moreover, recent(More)
INTRODUCTION Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an innate immune receptor expressed in immune cells and the heart. Activation of the immune system following myocardial ischemia causes the release of proinflammatory mediators that may negatively influence heart function. AIM The aim of this study is to determine whether TLR4 is activated in peripheral(More)