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BACKGROUND Imaging and postmortem studies provide converging evidence that, beginning in adolescence, gray matter volume declines linearly until old age, while cerebrospinal fluid volumes are stable in adulthood (age 20-50 years). Given the fixed volume of the cranium in adulthood, it is surprising that most studies observe no white matter volume expansion(More)
There has been a surge of interest in the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The published literature in this area has doubled in the last few years. In this paper, we will attempt to confirm the conclusions from a previous review that certain neurocognitive domains (secondary verbal memory, immediate memory, executive(More)
The degree to which MRI magnet field strength affects measured transverse relaxation rates (R2) defines a measure termed the field dependent R2 increase (FDRI). We report here the results of in vivo and in vitro experiments that were conducted to evaluate whether FDRI is a potentially useful measure of tissue iron stores. T2 relaxation times were obtained(More)
The Developmental Processes in Schizophrenic Disorders project is a longitudinal study of schizophrenic patients who have recently had a first episode of psychosis. The project focuses on discriminating characteristics of schizophrenic patients that are "stable vulnerability indicators," "mediating vulnerability factors," and "episode indicators" by(More)
Accuracy in psychiatric diagnosis is critical for evaluating the suitability of the subjects for entry into research protocols and for establishing comparability of findings across study sites. However, training programs in the use of diagnostic instruments for research projects are not well systematized. Furthermore, little information has been published(More)
Volume reductions of the hippocampus are associated with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. We used clinically available MRI methods (2D acquisition; inversion recovery and calculated T2 images; 3 mm contiguous slices) that optimize image contrast, quality, and resolution and standardized positioning protocols to maximize the in vivo accuracy(More)
BACKGROUND Hippocampal atrophy has been described in postmortem and magnetic resonance imaging studies of schizophrenia. The specificity of this finding to schizophrenia remains to be determined. The neuropathology of bipolar disorder is understudied, and temporal lobe structures have only recently been evaluated. METHODS Twenty-four bipolar, 20(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment efficacy in schizophrenia is typically defined in terms of symptom reduction. However, new antipsychotic medications could potentially have an impact on aspects of disability, such as neurocognitive deficits. The authors evaluated the effects of risperidone on verbal working memory, a memory component of theoretical interest because of(More)
This study evaluated the effects of antidepressants and psychotherapy on work impairment in depressed patients. Original databases from 10 published treatment studies were compiled and analyzed (N = 827). Functional work impairment was common at baseline, manifested by unemployment (11%) or on-the-job performance problems (absenteeism, decreased(More)
Tissue iron levels in the extrapyramidal system of earlier- and later-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects were evaluated in vivo using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method. The method involves scanning subjects in both high- and low-field MRI instruments, measuring tissue relaxation rate (R2), and calculating the field-dependent R2 increase (FDRI)(More)