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Infantile spasms is a unique disorder peculiar to infancy and early childhood. In this article, the clinical manifestations and electroencephalographic features of the disorder are described. The possible pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying infantile spasms and the relation of this disorder to other childhood encephalopathies are discussed. Finally, the(More)
Infantile spasms syndrome (ISS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with motor spasms, persistent seizures, mental retardation, and in some cases, autism. One of its monogenic causes is an insertion mutation [c.304ins (GCG)(7)] on the X chromosome, expanding the first polyalanine tract of the interneuron-specific transcription factor Aristaless-related(More)
This paper describes the design and test results of a three-stage automated system for neonatal EEG seizure detection. Stage I of the system is the initial detection stage and identifies overlapping 5-second segments of suspected seizure activity in each EEG channel. In stage II, the detected segments from stage I are spatiotemporally clustered to produce(More)
Infantile spasms constitute a relatively rare disorder of infancy and early childhood; their onset is usually within the first 6 to 8 months of life. A large percentage of patients with this disorder (85-90 per cent) show various degrees of retardation. Infantile spasms typically occur in clusters immediately on arousal, or soon thereafter, but rarely occur(More)
The first objective measurements of man's ability to obtain adequate sleep during prolonged space flight were made during the three manned Skylab missions. EEG, EOG, and head-motion signals were acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit. A control-panel(More)
With the use of a time-synchronized video and polygraphic recording system, 5,042 infantile spasms were monitored and analyzed in 24 infants aged 1 to 43 months. Of these, 33.9% were flexor, 22.5% extensor, and 42.0% mixed flexor-extensor. Sometimes the spasms were followed by a period of akinesia and diminished responsiveness lasting up to 90 seconds, and(More)
Epileptic seizures are reported to occur frequently in Rett syndrome (RS). We evaluated the hypothesis that many events classified as seizures in RS represent other paroxysmal, non-epileptic events; thus, the overall incidence of seizures in RS is overestimated. We conducted video/polygraphic/EEG monitoring sessions (8-120 h duration) in 82 RS females (ages(More)
Fifty patients in whom the diagnosis of infantile spasms had recently been made and who had hypsarrhythmic electroencephalographic findings were randomly assigned to receive either high- or low-dose therapy with corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH). Twenty-six patients receiving the high-dose therapy were treated as follows: 150 U/m2 per day(More)
The effects of both natural and sedated sleep on the auditory steady state evoked potential (SSEP) were evaluated in nine normal-hearing subjects. Both absolute amplitude and phase variability measures were obtained by Fourier analysis of successive samples of the averaged SSEP waveform. Amplitude decreased significantly in the sleeping state but phase(More)