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Enhanced proliferation of airway smooth muscle is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and other obstructive airway diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple bioactive lipid mediator that stimulates mitogenesis in fibroblasts and some other cell types. The effects of LPA on mitogenesis of cultured human airway smooth muscle cells were(More)
Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that psychological and psychiatric disorders are often developmentally progressive, and that diagnosis often represents a point along that progression that is defined largely by our abilities to detect symptoms. As a result, strategies that guide our searches for the root causes and etiologies of these(More)
In adult monkeys with dorsal rhizotomies extending from the second cervical (C2) to the fifth thoracic (T5) vertebrae, cortex deprived of its normal inputs regained responsiveness to inputs conveyed by intact peripheral afferents from the face [T.P. Pons, P.E. Garraghty, A.K. Ommaya, J.H. Kaas, E. Taub, M. Mishkin, Massive reorganization of the primary(More)
While limited research is available, evidence indicates that physical and mental activity influence the aging process. Human data show that executive functions of the type associated with frontal lobe and hippocampal regions of the brain may be selectively maintained or enhanced in humans with higher levels of fitness. Similarly enhanced performance is(More)
Numerous types of age-related deficits in the nervous system have been well documented. While a distinction between general types of memories that are susceptible to compromise with advanced age has been fairly well agreed upon, it is often difficult to determine exactly which specific processes are detrimentally influenced. In this study, we used a(More)
It has previously been demonstrated that the central somatosensory topographic reorganization within deprived cortex that follows peripheral nerve injury in adult monkeys occurs in at least two stages: an immediate unmasking period; and a more prolonged period where deprived areas of cortex come to express new receptive fields in a topographically arranged(More)
We have previously shown that most of the reorganization that typically follows median nerve transection in adult squirrel monkeys is dependent on normally functioning N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here, we have evaluated two additional hypotheses: (1) is the immediate "unmasking" found after median nerve transection NMDA receptor-dependent? and(More)
The peptide content of individual mammalian cells is profiled using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Both enzymatic and nonenzymatic procedures, including a glycerol cell stabilization method, are reported for the isolation of individual mammalian cells in a manner compatible with MALDI MS measurements.(More)
A view that is emerging is that the brain has multiple forms of plasticity that must be governed, at least in part, by independent mechanisms. This view is illustrated by: (1) the apparent separate governance of some non-neural changes by activity, in contrast to synaptic changes driven by learning; (2) the apparent independence of different kinds of(More)
Opioid receptor signaling via EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation and ERK/MAPK phosphorylation initiates diverse cellular responses that are cell type-dependent. In astrocytes, multiple μ opioid receptor-mediated mechanisms of ERK activation exist that are temporally distinctive and feature different outcomes. Upon discovering that chronic opiate treatment(More)